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BIHAR SPECIAL: PART-2


2015-02-22

Tribes in Bihar

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BIHAR SPECIAL: PART-3 (Historical Importance –Cities of Bihar)


Vaishali

  • Part of Tirhut Divison (Modern)

  • Capital city of Licchavi state. (Considered one of the 1st example of a republic, in the Vajjian confederacy (Vrijji) Maheijanpad. 6th century BCE)

  • Birth place of Mahavir Jain (24th trithankar) born and brought-up in Kundalgrama in Vaishali republic

  • Gautam Buddha preached his last sermon (announced his parinirvana) before his death

  • II Buddhist council was convened here by King Kalasoka

  • Contains one of the best – preserved of the Pillars of Ashoka, topped by a single Asiatic lion.

  • Renowned as the land of Amrapali, the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature.

  • Abhishek Pushkarini, (coronation tank) sacred waters of the anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali.

Buddhist sites in Vaishali

  • Relica stupa
  • Kutangarasala Vihara

           -On it ground Anand stupa can be found

           -With an Ashokan Pillars

  • Coronation tank (Abhishek Pushkarini)
  • World Peace Pagoda ( built by Japanese Nichiren Buddhist sect Nipponzan – Myohoji)

Rajgir (House of the king)/ Royal house

  • Royal Mountain
  • Located in Nalanda district of Bihar.
  • 1st capital of Magadha Kingdom.
  • Well known ‘Atanatiya conference was held at Vulture’s Peak mountain
  • Famous for Hot water springs (i.e. Brahamakund)
  • Vishwa shanty stupa (Peace Pagoda)
  • Rope-way
  • Venu van is an artificial forest (Japanese temple inside)

Gaya

  • A city of ancient historical and mythological significance
  • II largest city of Bihar
  • Situated on the banks of the Phalgu river (Niranjana, as mentioned in Ramayana)
  • Derives its name from the mythological demon Gayasur (Literally means Gaya the demon)

Historical sites (Holy)

  • Mangla Gauri is marked by two round stones that symbolizes the breasts of the mythological sati, wife of lord Shiva.
  • Vishnupad temple is marked by a footprint of lord Shiva incised into a block of basalt.
  • Important pilgrimage place because it was at Brahamayoni hill that Buddha preached the Fire Sermon (Adittapariya sutta)

Patna

  • II largest city of eastern India.
  • Founded in 490 CE by the king of Magadha (i.e. Pataliputra)
  • Capital of Magadh Empire

        –Haryanka

        –Nanda

        –Mauryan

        –Sunga

        –Gupta

        –Pala

  • Derived from Patan, the name of Hindu goddess, Patan Devi
  • Place appears in Chinese travelogue (Fa Hien as Pa-lin fou)
  • City’s various name

      -Pataligrama

      -Pataliputra

      -Kusumpura

      -Kusumdharwaja

      -Pushpapurum

      -Padmavathi

      -Azimabad 

  • Birth place of tenth Sikh Guru (i.e Guru Govind Singh)
  • In 1620, East India Company established a factory in Patna for trading in Calico and silk.

Chhapra

  • Famous for its Bhojpuri heritage
  • Birth place of:

          – Bhikhari Thakur(Shakespeare of Bhojpuri)

          – Rajendra Prasad

          – Chitragupta

          – Mazaharul Haq

Champaran

  • Owes its origin to champa-aranya or champakatanys
  • Champa/ Champaka means- Magnolia / Aranya means- Forest
  • Champaran means- Forest of Magnolia (Champa) Trees.
  • Constituted a part of the ancient kingdom of Videha
  • Personality from Champaran Movement:

     – Mahatama Gandhi was invited by Raj Kumar Shukla.

      – Dr. Rajendra Prasad

      – Acharya Kriplani

      – Mahadeo Desai

      – C.F Andrews

      – H.S Pollock

      – Anurag Narayan Singh

      – Raj Kishore Prasad

      – Ram Nawami Prasad

      – Dharnidhar Prasad

      – Mazaharul Haq

  • Place of 1st Satyagarh Movement (Non- Cooperation Movement)

      – District Magistrate at the time of movement: W.B Heycock

      – Champaran Agrarian Act (Bihar & Orissa Act of 1918)

      -Under chairmanship of Sri Frank Shy

              -M.K Gandhi was also one of its members.

Muzaffarpur

  • “Land of Leechi” was created in 1875 by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut.
  • Named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil(Revenue Officer) under British rule.
  • Site of the famous bomb case of 1908.
  • Young Indian Revolutionary (Bengal), Khudi Ram Bose was hang for throwing bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy, who was mistaken for Kingsford, the district judge of Muzaffarpur.
  • Famous for:

– Exporting lychee

– Textile Mills(Famous Marwari Community ‘Sutta Patti’)

Notable Personality

  • Maghfoor Ahmed Ajazi(Political Activist)
  • Janki Ballabh Shastri (Hindi Poet, Writer& Critics)
  • Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh(1st Ambassador to Nepal)
  • Devaki Nandan Katri (Writer of Chandrakanta)
  • Jubba Sahni
  • Aishwarya Nigam
  • J.B Kriplani (Prof. L.S College & Freedom fighter)
  • Has one of the oldest university of Bihar (i.e. B.R Ambedkar Bihar University)

Sitamarhi

  • District was carved out of Muzaffarpur district on 11th December, 1972.
  • Birth place of Sita, wife of lord Rama(Mythological).
  • A rock-cut sanctuary of the Mauryan period also exists here.

BIHAR SPECIAL: Part-1


Bihar, state of eastern India. It is bounded by Nepal to the north and by the Indian states of West Bengal to the northeast and Uttar Pradesh to the west. In November 2000 the new state of Jharkhand was created from Bihar’s southern provinces and now forms the state’s southern and south-eastern borders.

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