Tag Archive | Optional Paper

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs

Maslow’s hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper “A Theory of Human Motivation” in Psychological Review.  Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans’ innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms “physiological”, “safety”, “belongingness” and “love”, “esteem”, “self-actualization” and “self-transcendence” to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through.

What is Motivation?

• Willingness to exert high levels of effort toward organizational goals
• Conditioned by the effort’s ability to satisfy some individual need Read More…

[Part-2] Scientific Management: FREDERICK TAYLOR

6 Different Techniques of Scientific Management


The principles of scientific management only bring out the basic philosophy behind the theory. The question which now arises is how to implement these principles practically. Taylor has devised the following techniques for actually implementing the principles of scientific management.

  1. Functional Foremanship

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[Part-1] Scientific Management: Frederick Taylor


Frederick W. Taylor, in full Frederick Winslow Taylor (born March 20, 1856, Philadelphia, U.S.—died March 21, 1915, Philadelphia), American inventor and engineer who is known as the father of scientific management. His system of industrial management has influenced the development of virtually every country enjoying the benefits of modern industry. Read More…


Approaches in Geography

Geography may be studied by way of several interrelated approaches, i.e., systematically, regionally, descriptively, and analytically.

  • The Systematic approach organizes geographical knowledge into individual categories that are studied on a worldwide basis;
  • The Regional approach integrates the results of the systematic method and studies the interrelationships of the different categories while focusing on a particular area of the earth;
  • The Descriptive approach depicts where geographical features and populations are located;
  • The Analytical approach seeks to find out why those features are located where they are.

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Beginning with Geography for GS

welcome to geography

Relevance of the Subject

Current trend and pattern of CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION makes the subject of geography very important. If we analyze the syllabus ,we can easily find out that geography covers a large part of it. In the prelims, very conceptual questions have been asked on various topics likes phenomena of precipitation, monsoon, pressure, temperature, earthquakes, tsunami etc. To answer these questions, one should have crystal clear understanding of these topics. In main examination, the geography syllabus in GS-I is divided in to three parts: Silent features of world’s physical geography; Distribution of key natural resources across the world, and; Important geographical phenomena.

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