Tag Archive | Optional Paper

Henry Fayol: Gangplank and Criticism [Part 3]


The Gangplank refers to the need for ‘level jumping’ in a hierarchical organisation. Although Fayol places emphasis on formal organisation, he is alive to the dangers of conformity to hierarchy and formalism. ‘It is an error to depart needlessly from the line of authority, but it is even greater one to keep it when detrimental to the business’, asserts Fayol.

He illustrates the problem with reference to the figure given below. Read More…

Henry Fayol: An Introduction on Administrative Theory [Part 1]

Henri Fayol, contributed the corpus of management concepts and is considered the founder of the ‘Management Process School’. His Administration Industrielle et Generale was first published in France in 1916, but it did not come to light in the English-speaking countries until its English translation published in 1949 under the title General and Industrial Management. His work is considered a classic and a foundation in classical management theory. The book offers a theory and principles of management.

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Henry Fayol: Management and Principles of Administration [Part 2]

Elements of Management

Fayol identified, as we have seen earlier, five elements of management viz., planning, organisation, command, coordination and control which are discussed below.


Fayol used the French term Prevoyance which in French means to ‘foresee’, to ‘anticipate’ and to ‘make plans’. The administration’s chief manifestation and most effective instrument, to Fayol, is the plan of action. Planning enables the separation of the short-run events from the long-range considerations. It endows forethought to the operations of an organisation. Fayol considers that experience is an asset in drawing a realistic plan. To him, unity, continuity, flexibility and precision are the broad features of a good plan of action.

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Basics of Public administration

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What is Public Administration?

Public administration has many definitions, but will put some layman understanding of Public Administration that will give you a more peripheral vision. We will first discuss the ambit of Pub. Adm.  i.e Cross-disciplinary- Political Science, Sociology, Business Administration, Psychology, Law, Anthropology, Medicine, Forestry and so on. Read More…

[Optional] IAS Mains 2014 Anthropology Paper 2 Question Paper

Section A (Part 1)

Q1 Write short notes on the following in about 150 words each : 10×5=50

  1. Neolithic cultures of N-E India
  2. Tribe-Caste continuum
  3. Great tradition and Little tradition
  4. Major linguistic divisions of India
  5. Contribution of H. H. Risley to the ‘Aryan’ debate

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[Optional] IAS Mains 2014 Anthropology Paper 1 Question Paper

Section A (Part 1)

Q1. Write notes on the following in about 150 words each: 10 x5=50

  1. Double Descent
  2. Genealogical Method
  3. Major sub-divisions of Anthropology
  4. Ecological Anthropology
  5. Field work tradition in Anthropology

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[Optional Paper] IAS Mains 2014 Sociology Paper 1 Question Paper

Section A (Part 1)

Q1. Write short answer of the following in about 150 words each: 10×5=50           

  1. How is objectivity different from value neutrality? Discuss with reference to Weber’s views on methodology.
  2. How did the emergence of industrial society change the family life in Western Europe?
  3. How is sociological approach to human actions different from that of psychological approach?
  4. In what way biographies could be used to study social life?
  5. How can we use reference group theory to understand fashion in society?

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[Optional Paper] IAS Mains 2014 Political Science Paper 2 Question Paper

Section A (Part 1)

Q1. Answer the following questions in about 150 words each : 10 marksx5=50

  1. Party system in India is neither western nor indigenous. Explain.
  2. In what respect is the new social movement new in nature? Discuss.
  3. Do you agree that the U.N. has failed to contain transnational terrorism? Elaborate your answer with examples.
  4. “The Feminist approach to international politics is biased.” Comment.
  5. “Ukraine crisis is a product of power politics and geo-politics.” Comment.

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[Optional Paper] IAS Mains 2014 Political Science Paper 1 Question Paper


  • For each paper: Time Allowed : Three Hours Maximum Marks : 250
  • There are EIGHT questions divided in two Sections and printed both in HINDI and in ENGLISH.
  • Candidate has to attempt FIVE questions in all.
  • Question Nos. 1 and 5 are compulsory and out of the remaining, THREE are to be attempted choosing at least ONE question from each Section.
  • The number of marks carried by a question/part is indicated against it.
  • Answers must be written in the medium authorized in the Admission Certificate which must be stated clearly on the cover of this Question-cum-Answer (QCA) Booklet in the space provided. No marks will be given for answers written in medium other than the authorized one.
  • Word limit in questions, wherever specified, should be adhered to.
  • Attempts of questions shall be counted in chronological order. Unless struck off, attempt of a question shall be counted even if attempted partly. Any page or portion of the page left blank in the Question-cum-Answer Booklet must be clearly struck off.

Section-A (Part 1)

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[Optional Paper] IAS Mains 2014 Public Administration Paper 2 Question Paper

Section-A (Part 1)

Question 1. (Compulsory) 150 words x 10 marks each x 5 = 50 marks

  1. Ethics in public services has been the central concern of Kautilya’s Arthashastra. Critically examine the statement
  2. discuss the valuable premise of constitutionalism in India which the bureaucracy cannot violate
  3. the functional role of Prime Minister’s office (PMO) depends on the Prime Minister’s policy orientation, personality and style of administration. Comment on the statement with suitable examples.
  4. Despite the adoption of decentralised planning, participatory initiative remain marginalised and divisive live in many regions. Discuss
  5. the Centre State relations have acquired new dimensions in recent times due to several political parties being in power at the Centre and the States. (Second administrive, commission). Do you agree? Give reasons to support your arguments.

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