Tag Archive | Mains

[Part 1] Mains 2014 GS-3 Answer key and Solutions

Question 1: Normally countries shifted from agriculture to industry and later to services, but India shifted directly from agriculture to services.What are the reason for the huge growth of the services vis-a-vis industry in the country? can India become a developed country without a strong industrial base?

Answer: Part-I

The proper course of development that an economy follow is a shift from agriculture to services via industry, but India has shifted from agriculture to services directly without entering into industrial phase. The Reason behind its direct shift are as follows:

  1. Globalisation and Liberalisation: Both the term influenced India almost at the same time, which created a base to grow service sector. The globalization opened the shifting of service sector job while liberalization opened the country’s market by increased investment.
  2. Availability of Skilled manpower : The huge availability of skilled manpower with lower labor cost provided a solid base for service sector growth.
  3. Internal and external demand: The world wide demand of services sector with increasing economy and purchase power has influenced greatly in growth of service sector.

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[Part 2] Henry Fayol: Management and Principles of Administration

Elements of Management

Fayol identified, as we have seen earlier, five elements of management viz., planning, organisation, command, coordination and control which are discussed below.

Fayol on Management


Fayol used the French term Prevoyance which in French means to ‘foresee’, to ‘anticipate’ and to ‘make plans’. The administration’s chief manifestation and most effective instrument, to Fayol, is the plan of action. Planning enables the separation of the short-run events from the long-range considerations. It endows forethought to the operations of an organisation. Fayol considers that experience is an asset in drawing a realistic plan. To him, unity, continuity, flexibility and precision are the broad features of a good plan of action.

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League of Nations: A child with an Bad Fortune

League of Nations

League of Nations was established to bring peace in the world, through peaceful settlement of international disputes. It was formed under the Paris Peace Conference, and came into existence on January 10, 1920. It had its headquarters at Geneva. It was the result of a search for a world organization. US President Woodrow Wilson is regarded as the ‘Godfather’ of the League of Nations.

International Organisations Before the League of Nations

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[Part 2] Iconography in India: Buddhism

The Dhyani Buddhas are peculiar kind of Buddhas, Who are not required to pass surpass the stages of a Bodhisattva. They are always engaged in peaceful meditation and abstain themselves from the act of creation. Among the Dhyani Buddhas, Amitabha always faces west when he is represented on ‘Stupa’. His two hands with palm open lie on his lap one upon the other forming the meditative posture. ‘Maitreya may be represented as a standing figure, adorned by rich ornaments and holding stalk of lotus on his right hand. He is shown with Dharma chakra mudra through his right hand while holding vase on his left hand.

Following are the important Mudras commonly represented in Buddha images :


Buddhism- Abhaya

Abhaya means ‘no fear’ and this mudra shows the Buddha giving blessings, reassurance and protection to his followers.

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Understanding the concept of Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction

The concept of Reflection and Refraction often put us in surprise. These concepts are the main reason that we see water on roads on a hot sunny day, and the reason that our mind commits a mistake in guessing the depth of water. This article will throw some light on the principles of reflection and refraction.

Aspirant Forum is thankful to the author for taking out some time and contributing this informative article.


Light is basically a form of energy which creates a sensation of vision to our eyes. Light can travel even in vacuum with a speed of around 3 × 108 ms-1. light has a dual nature which implies it exhibits both wave as well as particle nature. The wave nature of light can be explained using diffraction, interference and polarization while the particle nature of light is explained using reflection and refraction phenomena. The elementary particle of light is known as photon.

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National Cyber Security Policy


The “National Cyber Security Policy” has been prepared in consultation with all relevant stakeholders, user entities and public.
• This policy aims at facilitating creation of secure computing environment and enabling adequate trust and confidence in electronic transactions and also guiding stakeholder’s actions for protection of cyber space.
• The National Cyber Security Policy document outlines a road-map to create a framework for comprehensive, collaborative and collective response to deal with the issue of cyber security at all levels within the country.
• The policy recognizes the need for objectives and strategies that need to be adopted both at the national level as well as international level.
• The objectives and strategies outlined in the National Cyber Security Policy together serve as a means to:
i. Articulate our concerns, understanding, priorities for action as well as directed efforts.
ii. Provide confidence and reasonable assurance to all stakeholders in the country (Government, business, industry and general public) and global community, about the safety, resiliency and security of cyber space.

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Reading the NCERTs and NIOS books for IAS Preparation

the blunder of not reading the NCERT Among the most widespread beliefs about the Civil Services Preparations, is the great importance of the NCERT and NIOS books. The recent papers have further reinforced the belief. If we look in to the pattern of the civil services examination and the nature of questions asked in the exam, we will find that the civil services examination requires clarity of concepts and analytical ability of candidate to use these concepts in various fields of life. Read More…

Peace Treaty with Other Nations and Evaluation of Treaty of Versailles

Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles Evluation

The treaty was unjust as the Germans were never consulted. The treaty was imposed, against the threat of resumption of war, in case of non-conformity. Therefore, it was criticized all across the world. To some extent, it also became a cause of the Second World War.

Due to the nature of the treaty, it could not be passed in the US Senate, leading to the ouster of USA from the League of Nations as well.

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[Part-2] Scientific Management: FREDERICK TAYLOR

6 Different Techniques of Scientific Management


The principles of scientific management only bring out the basic philosophy behind the theory. The question which now arises is how to implement these principles practically. Taylor has devised the following techniques for actually implementing the principles of scientific management.

  1. Functional Foremanship

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An Insight into the Symbolism in Indian Art

Indian art and sculpture

Symbolism in Indian art is referred to ideological depiction on sculpture and architecture. The emergence of architectural and sculptural aspects of various forms like temple, Stupas and caves etc under the patronage of state has reached its developed stage during Mauryan period from its early terracotta forms. The Asokan pillar, the animals and carvings on the pillars, representation of Buddha in the form of foot print, Bodhi tree, Stupa with glassy polish surface, all show the maturity of artist.

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