The national movement evolved a much broader concept of humanism, that guided the Indian state, post-independence. The National movement was motivated by a humanistic spirit, that guided the people towards a common brotherhood. This human spirit was based on two sources:
Radhakrishnan believed that human beings are by nature value seekers. They seek truth, beauty and goodness. For him, ethical principles are unconditional commands, guiding man towards a self realization. The awareness and understanding of the mystery of life can be gained only through ethics, religion and philosophy. Moral values are a necessity for the development of personality. He saw non-violence, renunciation and suffering as the cardinal principles of human life.
Swami Vivekananda was a pioneer of rational thought, in ethics and religion, in modern India. He tried to reconciliate Sankara’s concept of Advaita in Ramakrishna Paramhansa’s teachings. He tried to give a rational, concrete and scientific account of practical Vedanta. He viewed the central point of Vedanta as the unity in diversity. His ideas synthesize the philosophical and material aspects. He worked to bring out the philosophical ideas in the Hindu religion out for the common man. His version of Vedanta is called Practical Vedanta. Vivekananda’s teachings are full of ideas of humanism.
Raja Rammohan Roy
Raja Ram Mohan Roy is hailed as the father of modern India. Throughout his life, he fought for ridding the society of the various evil practices. He tried to rediscover the foundational unity of the various religions. He wanted to combine the best in the East and the West, through the introduction of the English Education in India. He wanted to inculcate the western spirit in the Indian minds, so as to rid the Indian society of the various evil practices.
Nationalism and Internationalism
Nehru was a pioneer nationalist. He is also remembered as an internationalist par excellence. His ideas present a harmonious blend of nationalism and internationalism. He understood the influence and role of nationalism in getting independence to the different colonies, like India. Nationalism binds the masses together, by creating a degree of unity, vigor and vitality. However, he carefully rejected the narrow understanding of nationalism, that are based on fanatic and communal ideas. He also opposed the tendency of jingoism, that sees other nations as enemies. Read More…
Moral consciousness is a constituent part of the human society. A society's moral consciousness develops with time and age. In different ages, different individuals have ventured into the moral-ethical principles guiding the society, through its ups and downs. A substantive portion of ethical knowledge is derived from our past, in the form of religious scriptures, social customs and traditions.
India is one of the oldest civilizations of the world. Due to this fact, India has a vast reserve of moral-ethical scriptures, which guided our civilization through the ages. The foundations of Indian ethics can be seen in the metaphysical and theological beliefs in the form of worship, prayers and ideals and principles of the society. In India, there exists an intimate relationship between ethics and religion. Read More…