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Non-Aligned Movement | Evolution and History

‘The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War, largely on the initiative of the then Yugoslavian President Josip Broz Tito. NAM originated as an organisation of the third world countries which did not seek to formally align themselves with either of the two world blocks i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union but wanted to remain independent or neutral. The United States, West European nations and their allies represented the first world countries while the newly formed nations after Second World War were termed as third world countries. Read More…

Struture of League of Nations


The League of Nations worked like a Parliamentary democracy. It had 3 principal organs:

The Assembly

It was the general conference of the member states. All the members were represented in it. Each state sent a delegation of not more than 3 delegates. Each delegation was entitled to have one vote, as a whole. An annual session was held at Geneva. However, there was a provision of special sessions as well. League held its First session in November 1920. Its last session was held in April 1946, in which it was formally abolished, and its assets were transferred to the UNO. Read More…

League of Nations: A child with an Bad Fortune

League of Nations

League of Nations was established to bring peace in the world, through peaceful settlement of international disputes. It was formed under the Paris Peace Conference, and came into existence on January 10, 1920. It had its headquarters at Geneva. It was the result of a search for a world organization. US President Woodrow Wilson is regarded as the ‘Godfather’ of the League of Nations.

International Organisations Before the League of Nations

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Peace Treaty with Other Nations and Evaluation of Treaty of Versailles

Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles

Treaty of Versailles Evluation

The treaty was unjust as the Germans were never consulted. The treaty was imposed, against the threat of resumption of war, in case of non-conformity. Therefore, it was criticized all across the world. To some extent, it also became a cause of the Second World War.

Due to the nature of the treaty, it could not be passed in the US Senate, leading to the ouster of USA from the League of Nations as well.

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World War I Peace Treaties

World War I Peace Conference

After the end of the First World War on November 11, 1918, a number of peace treaties were signed in 1919-20. Meanwhile, President Woodrow Wilson, of USA, gave his famous 14 Points for ‘peace without victory’ in January 1918.

Wilson’s 14 Points

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Towards World War I

Causes of World War I

The First World War broke out with the declaration of war by Austria-Hungary, on July 28, 1914, upon Serbia. The World War was fought between- the Allied Powers, consisting originally of France, Britain and Russia, and the Central Powers, consisting of Austria-Hungary, Germany and the Turkish Empire. Italy joined the Allied powers in 1915; while the USA joined the Allied powers in April 1917. Also, after the Bolshevik Revolution in November 1917, Russia withdrew from the war.

19th Century International Relations are described as a combination of nationalism, economic imperialism and balance of power. Economic Imperialism was more an outcome of ultra-nationalism, industrial revolution and capitalism. Read More…

Evolution of Socialist Movement

The First International, 1864

First International

One of the most important events in the history of the socialist movement was the formation in 1864 of the International Working Men’s Association, or the First International. With it, socialism stepped on the stage of history as a world movement. It was formed at London, with delegates coming from Britain, Italy, France, Germany, Poland and Switzerland. Marx addressed the meeting, which became famous as the Inaugural Address of the International Working Men’s Association. This address along with the general rules, outlined the principles and aims of the international. The central aim of the international was declared to be the total abolition of all class rule. The universal character of the struggle of the working class was emphasized. The address ended with the slogan- ‘Proletarians of all lands, unite!’.

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The Rise of Socialism

Early Socialist Movement can be traced to the Chartist Movement in England, which aimed at winning political rights for workers. Socialism posed the greatest challenge to the ideas of capitalism. It tried to prove that capitalism itself is evil and that it needs to be replaced by a different kind and economic system in which the means of production would be owned by the society as a whole and not by a few individuals.



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Japanese Imperialism

In 1850s, US sent warships under Commodore Perry, and forced the Japanese to open their country for the American shipping and trade. This was known as Gun-boat Diplomacy. Later Japan had similar agreements with Britain, Holland, France and Russia. However, Japan itself emerged as an Imperialist country after the Meiji Restoration.

Japan imperialism

Meiji Restoration

It was a political revolution under which the erstwhile Tokugawa Shogunate, which was a feudal-military government, was replaced with a new imperial government under the Emperor Meiji. Japan adopted the slogan- ‘Wealthy country and strong arms’ and sought to create a nation-state capable of standing equal among western powers. The government took a number of reforms:

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Colonization of China

Opium Wars

Opium War

The imperialist occupation of China began with the Opium Wars. Before these wars, only two Chinese ports were open for foreign trade. China was already a prosperous civilization, which had invented paper, printing and gunpowder. There was no need for British goods in China. Thus, British had to pay in gold and silver for the goods imported from China. To cover up their costs of imports, British merchants began smuggling opium from India to China.

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