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Science and Technology Crux Vol. 09

Science & Technology have always been an integral part of competitive exams. Here, we are giving crux of Science & Technology in magazine form in order to help aspirants to crack different competitive exams.


Please feel free to comment and suggest any changes that you may like to see in the magazine for the coming editions.

We wish our aspirants all the best for their preparations and studies.

Click here for Science-and-technology-crux-vol-09


Science and Technology Crux Vol. 08


Please feel free to comment and suggest any changes that you may like to see in the magazine for the coming editions.

We wish our aspirants all the best for their preparations and studies.

Click here for Science-and-technology-crux-vol-08


TRIPS agreement: Mechanism for homogeneity in the Intellectual property

The TRIPS agreement was supposed to bring homogeneity in the Intellectual property regime of the developing & the developed world. However, it has also brought both of them at a level of confrontation against each other. Discuss.

Ans: The TRIPS agreement that was signed under a package deal of Uruguay round of WTO to reduce barriers to international trade, has not taken away from the WTO member states, the right to independently adopt IPR laws. It has actually enforced all the states to frame the policy that should provide the minimum standards of protection as introduced in the agreement.


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Toothpaste: A protector of tooth or bringer of harm

The Toothpaste

The development of toothpastes began in China and India during 300-500 BC. Initially, crushed bone, crushed egg and oyster shells were used as abrasives in tooth cleaning. Modern toothpastes were developed in the 1800s. Later, soap and chalk were added to their formulations and after Second World War soap was replaced with various chemical ingredients as abrasives, emulsifying agents, etc. In addition to 20–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, including three main ones: abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. When it comes to toothpaste a lot of international as well as national brands compete in the market.

Brands and their ingredients:

Brands like, Dabur, Colgate, Pepsodent, Close-up, Himalaya, Vicco, etc claims that they are unique to their products. Some of these brands claim to be 100% herbal and others promise to give 99.9% germ check. Majority of the market is shared by Colgate, Dabur, Closeup and Pepsodent.


Starting with Closeup, Pepsodent, Colgate the following are the ingredients claimed at the back of the carton:

Close-up: Sorbital, hydrated silica, water, SLS, PEG-32, cocamidopropylbetain, flavour, cellulose gum, sodium saccharin, sodium fluoride, Sulphate mica, sodium hydroxide, other CI.

Pepsodent: Water sorbitol, calcium carbonate, hydrated silica, SLS, trisodium phosphate, flavour, PEG-32, cellulose gum, sodium saccharin, benzyl alcohol, sodium mono floride, other CI.

Colgate: Silica, glycerine, sorbitol, SLS, triclosan, titanium phosphate, titanium dioxide coated mica, sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose, FD&C Blue, carrageenan gum, propylene glycol, flavour, etc.

Commonly found ingredients in toothpaste can affect badly to our health. Such ingredients are:

  • Sorbitol
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
  • Saccharin
  • Floride
  • Other abrasives and excipients


  • Every tooth paste has Abrasives even in most of the ayurvedic tooth pastes (which are discussed here).
  • The 50% of the toothpaste has the mixture of abrasives. It helps to remove plague and calculus through which cavities are minimized.
  • The following are some of the abrasives: aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, various calcium hydrogen phosphates, various silicas and zeolites, and hydroxyapatite
  • Majority of the toothpastes contain powdered white mica, which acts as a mild abrasive, and also adds a cosmetically pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste.

All these Polishing agents not only remove stains from tooth but also do not improve dental health, also cause enamel erosion.


  • It was used in primarily as preservatives and pesticides, and was regulated by EPA (Environmental Protection Act).
  • Brushing your teeth and washing your mouth using the products with Triclosan can expose you to the harmful effects of Triclosan that include impaired heart and muscle function and hypothyroidism.

The other dangerous ingredient which is being very much cautious in western countries is Fluoride; since people have started being cautious by being aware of the effects of fluoride even well reputed and largely selling companies had also started manufacturing fluoride free tooth paste. In western Countries therefore they got two kind of toothpaste with and without fluoride.



  • Calcium fluoride is the most-common naturally-occurring form of fluoride, and in small amounts it is not toxic
  • FYI: Males over 18 years: 4.0 mg/day, Females over 14 years: 3.0 mg/day
  • Most of the tooth pastes got 1000 ppm (parts per million) mentioned behind the carton like Pepsodent and Colgate, Himalaya


  • It is a by-product of the aluminium manufacturing process
  • Until the dental benefits of fluoride were popularized in the mid-20th century their primary uses were in rat poison and insecticides.
  • It is also dangerous air pollutant as well during its manufacturing process
  • Also effects brain also kidney if consumed in large quantities
  • Pepsodent, Colgate total, close-up and even Himalaya which claims as “helping your gums maintain their natural health” contains fluoride.

Apart from the above chemicals, some of the toothpaste’s companies highlight its natural herbal ingredients with its medicinal values. Herbs such as Bishop’s Weed Neem, Barks of Toothache Tree, Pomegranate, Triphala, False Black Pepper, etc. are used by Himalaya.

Whereas, Dabur RED has got rich natural ingredients like piper nigrum (maricha) pippali, shunti, tejovati, lavang, karpoor, pudina satva, gairic powder to exract menthyi acetate, menthine,  methyl cinnamate, and so on to reduce gingivitis, bad breath and keep the teeth strong.

Vicco uses around 20 herbal extracts. On website it claims that “These herbal extracts are chosen for their beneficial effect on the teeth or the gums. Vicco is made from herbs, barks, roots and flowers, not from artificial chemicals. Vicco Toothpaste includes the famous Ayurvedic herb called Vajradanti, which, when translated, means “diamond teeth.” It contains no artificial ingredients, no harsh abrasives, and no fluoride.

But they also use artificial sweeteners and preservatives like all other toothpastes such as sodium saccharin, methyl paraben, sodium benzoatepropyl paraben and excipients-q.s.

So, it is advised on the basis of information given that whenever you go to select your toothpaste, don’t go on the attractive labels, as the health comes first………..


SOURCE: Wikipedia, India’s top responsibility brands, and others sites

Concept and Relevance of Water-ATM

“Water, water, everywhere, and all the boards did shrink; Water, water, everywhere, nor any drop to drink.”

Water atm

It has been confirmed that, now the relocated colonies of Delhi will be able to have safe and pure RO drinking water at much cheaper rates i.e. only 30 paisa per litre thereby preventing themselves from various diseases and also giving a tough competition to packaged drinking water suppliers because people now do not have to spend huge amount on drinking water. Delhi’s Lt. Governor Najeeb Jung has given green signal for the water-ATMs as proposed by Delhi Jal Board (DJB).

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Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA)

  • Developmental projects are an essential component of economic development and progress of a country.
  • To prevent adverse impacts of developmental projects and programmes an environment, Environmental Impact Assessment or EIA is carried out before the implementation.
  • While development is important, more important is environmental protection so that there is sustainable development and the environmental resources remain available to future generations.


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Environmental Pollution

  • Pollution is defined as ‘an addition or excessive addition of certain materials to the physical environment (water, air and lands), making it less fit or unfit for life’.

  • A pollutant is a substance or energy introduced into the environment that has undesired effects, or adversely affects the usefulness of a resource.
  • They are constituent parts of the pollution process. They are the actual “executing agents” of environmental pollution. They come in gaseous, solid or liquid form.


Classification of pollutant on disposable nature

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Indian Space Research Organization

Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established in August 1969 by two pioneer scientists of India – Vikram Sarabhai and Homi Bhabha with a vision to harness space technology for national development, while pursuing space science research exploration. Headquarter of ISRO is in Antariksh Bhavan, Bangalore. ISRO successfully launched its first satellite Aryabhata in 1975 with the help of space launching vehicle of Soviet Union. However, Rohini was the first Indian satellite which was placed in orbit by Indian launching vehicle, SLV–3 in 1980. Presently the organization is headed by Dr. Kailasavadivoo Sivan.

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Fiber Optics

With the technological advancement of the world towards progress and modernisation, there is a strong need of fast and uninterrupted communication. Thin hair-like optical fibres are continuously playing an extraordinary role in the growth of world-wide communication. They are spreading like neurons over the whole planet connecting people to communicate among each other within seconds irrespective of the distance between them and making life easier and faster.


Understanding the concept of Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction

The concept of Reflection and Refraction often put us in surprise. These concepts are the main reason that we see water on roads on a hot sunny day, and the reason that our mind commits a mistake in guessing the depth of water. This article will throw some light on the principles of reflection and refraction.

Aspirant Forum is thankful to the author for taking out some time and contributing this informative article.


Light is basically a form of energy which creates a sensation of vision to our eyes. Light can travel even in vacuum with a speed of around 3 × 108 ms-1. light has a dual nature which implies it exhibits both wave as well as particle nature. The wave nature of light can be explained using diffraction, interference and polarization while the particle nature of light is explained using reflection and refraction phenomena. The elementary particle of light is known as photon.

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