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Make in India and Digital India: Policy to improve farm productivity and income


Make in India and Digital India both are Incumbent government’s flagship programs. The concept of Make in India initiative was launched to boost the domestic industry and to attract foreign investors to invest the Indian economy. The prime objective of the initiatives is to revive the manufacturing industries and create congeal environment to the entrepreneurs in way of the ease of business whereas Digital India was launched to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. It provides the intensified impetus for further momentum and progress for e-Governance and would promote inclusive growth that covers electronic services, products, devices, manufacturing and job opportunities. Both the policies complement each other and have potential to transform the Indian society.

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Demonetisation of Indian Currency Notes: Implications and Effects


What demonetisation is….

The act of banning a currency of being a legal tender is termed as demonetisation. Whenever a country changes its national currency in order to curb counterfeiting and money-laundering, it issues a notice of demonetisation of its older currency of particular denomination and the particular currency is retired and replaced with the new currency. A recent example of demonetisation is that of 500 and 1000 denomination currency units of India.

Demonetisation of 500 and 1000 denomination currency in India

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Inter-States River Water Disputes in India


The rivers of India play a vital role in the sustenance of lives of millions of Indians. They form the major irrigation system. They form the habitat of marine lives.

With the growing population, the demand for water has been increasing exponentially after independence. A river is merely freely running water which can emerge from one state, flows through another state and ends in third state. The uprising of Cauvery river dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu has blown fire to the scenario of inter-state water disputes. Most of these disputes have been resolved on the basis of unbiased allotment by the central government. Whenever required, negotiation through appointment of water disputes tribunals is also resorted.

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Timeline of Cauvery Dispute


TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL

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May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.

June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).

June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.

September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.

July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.

February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu

September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.

February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.

March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.

March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.

May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.

June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.

June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.

July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.

August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.

September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka

Role of News Media as Civic Forum


Equality vital, in their civic forum, the free press can strengthen the public sphere, by mediating between citizens and the state, facilitating debate about the major issues of the day, and informing the public about their leaders. If the channels of communication reflect the social and cultural pluralism within each society, in a fair and impartial balance, then multiple interests and voices are heard in public deliberation.  This role is particularly important during election campaigns, as fair access to the  airwaves by opposition parties, candidates and groups is critical  for competitive, free and fair multiparty elections.

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During  campaigns, a free media provides citizens with information to compare and evaluate the retrospective record, prospective policies and leadership characteristics of parties and candidates, providing the essential conditions for informed choice.

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List of Policies/ Programmes/ Schemes of the Government of India [Part III]


List of Policies/Programmes/Schemes of the Government of India [Part III] with features and objectives that will help you in the preparation of different competitive examination.

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List of Policies/Programmes/Schemes of the Government of India [Part II]


List of Policies/Programmes/Schemes of the Government of India [Part II] with features and objectives that will help you in the preparation of different competitive examination.

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Directive Principles of State Policy: Features and Principles


The framers of the constitution provided every state with some guiding principles which are meant for promoting the ideal of social and economic democracy. These guiding principles have been named as Directive Principles of State Policy. These directive principles ensure to avoid the violation of fundamental rights of the citizen of a state. They are meant to establish a ‘welfare state’. The directive principles are non-justifiable in nature. They cannot be enforced by the court of law for their violation. However, these directive principles have been declared as the fundamental principles in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws. Hence, they impose a moral responsibility on the state authorities for their application.

Directive Principles of State Policy

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SECTION 124A – INDIAN PENAL CODE (SEDITION)


Section 124A

The framers of Indian constitution defined the term state under Article 12 as a union of the state government and union government, the parliament and state legislatures and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of Government of India.

India is a republic democratic state. Every citizen of Indian state has been provided with certain fundamental rights which they enjoy without any discrimination of caste, colour and creed. Article 19 of Constitution of India deals with Right to freedom under which every citizen of India has freedom of speech and expression. The Right to freedom, as under Article 19(1) says: Read More…

Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organized Crime (GCTOC) Sent Back Again


Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organized Crime (GCTOC) Bill, 2015 came in news again recently after it was sent back by President Pranab Mukherjee, seeking clarifications on some of it’s provisions. The Bill has been in controversies and debates ever since it’s inception.

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GCTOC was earlier passed by the Gujarat Assembly on March 31, 2015. Interestingly, the Assembly retained the controversial provisions that were earlier rejected by the President. The Bill was first introduced in 2003 by the then Modi Government in Gujarat.

The Ministry has replied that it will soon submit a re-worked Bill for the approval of the President.

What are the Objection?

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