The rivers of India play a vital role in the sustenance of lives of millions of Indians. They form the major irrigation system. They form the habitat of marine lives.
With the growing population, the demand for water has been increasing exponentially after independence. A river is merely freely running water which can emerge from one state, flows through another state and ends in third state. The uprising of Cauvery river dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu has blown fire to the scenario of inter-state water disputes. Most of these disputes have been resolved on the basis of unbiased allotment by the central government. Whenever required, negotiation through appointment of water disputes tribunals is also resorted.
TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL
May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.
June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).
June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.
September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.
July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.
February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu
September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.
February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.
March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.
March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.
May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.
June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.
June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.
July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.
August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.
September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka
The policies, schemes are very important concepts and have different meaning which are discussed below:
Policies: They are the guiding principles that government seeks to achieve and preserve in the interest of national community.
Schemes: It is a type of offer with few benefits.
In other word, policies have side effects but scheme can only benefited the society.
Here, we are giving a ‘list of Policies/Programmes/Schemes of the Government of India’ with features and objectives that will help you in the preparation of different competitive examination.
The framers of Indian constitution defined the term state under Article 12 as a union of the state government and union government, the parliament and state legislatures and all local or other authorities within the territory of India or under the control of Government of India.
India is a republic democratic state. Every citizen of Indian state has been provided with certain fundamental rights which they enjoy without any discrimination of caste, colour and creed. Article 19 of Constitution of India deals with Right to freedom under which every citizen of India has freedom of speech and expression. The Right to freedom, as under Article 19(1) says: Read More…
Gujarat Control of Terrorism and Organized Crime (GCTOC) Bill, 2015 came in news again recently after it was sent back by President Pranab Mukherjee, seeking clarifications on some of it’s provisions. The Bill has been in controversies and debates ever since it’s inception.
GCTOC was earlier passed by the Gujarat Assembly on March 31, 2015. Interestingly, the Assembly retained the controversial provisions that were earlier rejected by the President. The Bill was first introduced in 2003 by the then Modi Government in Gujarat.
The Ministry has replied that it will soon submit a re-worked Bill for the approval of the President.
What are the Objection?
Article 148 of the constitution of India deals with the Comptroller and Auditor General (CAG) of India who is the head of the Indian Audit and Accounts Department and controls the whole financial system of the Union as well as state governments. He is one of the shield of the democratic system of our nation along with Supreme Court, Election Commission and Union Public Service Commission.