Many of the provisions of our constitution has been borrowed from the Government of India Act of 1935 as well as from the constitution of various other countries that includes USSR, France, Japan, Germany and many more. The fundamental rights as described in Articles 12 – 35 of Constitution of India constitute the philosophical part of the constitution and are inspired from the American constitution. These rights are the basic human rights and apply to every citizen of India irrespective of religion, colour, sex, birth place, race or caste. They guarantee development of human personality.
Women Empowerment refers to increasing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength of the women, to ensure equal-right to women. It helps women to control and benefit from resources, assets, income and their own time, as well as the ability to manage risk and improve their economic status and wellbeing. Many of the barriers to women’s empowerment and equity lie ingrained in cultural norms. Many women feel these pressures, while others have become accustomed to being treated inferior to men. Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors is essential to build stronger economies, achieve internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability, and improve the quality of life for women, men, families and communities.
Child labour in India is biggest problem in India. The main reason is poverty and lack of social security. Commercialisation of education and lack of good quality of education and facilities in the government school do not able to stop the child labour. This situation has to be evaluated at the current scenario.
As we know that child are the future of the country, but the mud of child labour become very harmful to the child rather it is directly affect the future of the nation. Therefore, Government of India has enacted Right to Education (RTE) and also amended Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016 to keep distance from child labouring as well as facilitate the better and free education, easy admission in schools, listened the children’s health to prohibit the engagement of children in all occupations and of adolescents in hazardous occupations and processes and facilitate the rules and regulation of convention of International Labour Organisation (ILO).
Before moving on to the discussion on Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme, firstly we have to understand- ‘what is Subsidy and why it is given?’ Subsidy is a mechanism of welfare state in which government extended its support to the institution, business or individual in the form of a cash payment or a tax reduction. It is generally used as a form of support for particular portions of a nation’s economy which can assist struggling markets by lowering the burdens placed on them, or encourage new developments by providing financial support for the endeavors.
The rivers of India play a vital role in the sustenance of lives of millions of Indians. They form the major irrigation system. They form the habitat of marine lives.
With the growing population, the demand for water has been increasing exponentially after independence. A river is merely freely running water which can emerge from one state, flows through another state and ends in third state. The uprising of Cauvery river dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu has blown fire to the scenario of inter-state water disputes. Most of these disputes have been resolved on the basis of unbiased allotment by the central government. Whenever required, negotiation through appointment of water disputes tribunals is also resorted.
TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL
May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.
June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).
June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.
September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.
July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.
February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu
September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.
February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.
March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.
March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.
May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.
June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.
June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.
July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.
August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.
September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka
The directive principles have been declared as the fundamental principles in the governance of the country and it shall be the duty of the state to apply these principles in making laws. Hence, they impose a moral responsibility on the state authorities for their application.