Charle’s Lindblom presented the ‘Incremental Model’ of the policy-making process’ as an alternative to traditional rational model of decision-making. In his article ‘Science of Muddling Through’ which was published in 1959 AD gained vide recognition in the development of policy analysis as concerned with the ‘process’ of making policy. Since then Lindblom’s thought has evolved beyond his original argument.
Recently, Medical Termination of Pregnancy Amendment Bill 2020 was passed in Lok Sabha. For expanding access of women to safe and legal abortion services on therapeutic, eugenic, humanitarian or social grounds.
- Aims to increase upper gestation limit for termination of pregnancy under certain conditions and to strengthen access to comprehensive abortion care, under strict conditions, without compromising service and quality of safe abortion.
Right to Information (RTI) is act of the Parliament of India to provide for setting out the practical regime of the right to information for citizens and replaces the erstwhile Freedom of information Act, 2002. Under the provisions of the Act, any citizen of India may request information from a “public authority” (a body of Government or “instrumentality of State”) which is required to reply expeditiously or within thirty days. The Act also requires every public authority to computerise their records for wide dissemination and to proactively certain categories of information so that the citizens need minimum recourse to request for information formally.
India is the second-largest communication market which means mobile is very common even in the remote villages or areas. But traditional banking industry cannot fulfil the needs of the India’s large population through the services like RTGS (Real Time Gross Settlement), ECS (Electronic Clearing Services) for Credit or Debit, NEFT (National Electronic Fund Transfer) System, IMPS (Immediate Payment Services).
Hence, India has move to the mobile payment mechanism to access the basic financial services from trusted source at fingertip such as UPI i.e. Unified Payment Interface which can transfer money instantly through mobile. This mechanism is a flagship programme of the Government of India with a vision to transform India into a digitally empowered society and knowledge economy. “Faceless, Paperless, Cashless” is one of professed role of Digital India.
The Government of India is working to develop inland waterways as an alternative mode of transport in the country, which is cleaner and cheaper than both road and rail transport. There are 111 National Waterways in the country today, after 106 waterways were declared as National Waterways, adding to the list of 5 existing NW, in 2016.
A Non-Performing Asset refers to a classification for loans on the books of financial institutions that are in default or are in arrears on scheduled payments of principal or interest. The assets of the banks which don’t perform (that is – don’t bring any return) are called Non Performing Assets (NPA) or bad loans.
In most cases, debt is classified as non-performing when loan payments have not been made for a period of 90 days. According to RBI, terms loans on which interest or instalment of principal remain overdue for a period of more than 90 days from the end of a particular quarter is called a Non-performing Asset. However, in terms of Agriculture / Farm Loans, the NPA is defined as under-For short duration crop agriculture loans such as paddy, Jowar, Bajra etc. if the loan (instalment / interest) is not paid for 2 crop seasons, it would be termed as a NPA. For Long Duration Crops, the above would be 1 Crop season from the due date. Non-Performing Assets which are called as NPA’s by the banking sector have become a pain for both public and private sector banks in India.
Section 377 of the IPC which is commonly referred to as the ‘anti-sodomy law‘ was introduced during the British rule in India (1860), to criminalise homo-sexual activities. It terms voluntary carnal intercourse against the order of nature with man, woman or animal as ‘unnatural offences’ and prescribes punishment with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description fora term which may extend to ten years, and fine.
1947: Independent India’s First Budget
Finance Minister: R.K. Shanmukham Chetty.
India’s first finance minister Presented: November 26, 1947
The Budget Decision: Well, the decision to present a budget itself, since it covered just 7-1/2 months, from August 15, 1947, to March 31, 1948
1951: The first Budget of the Republic of India
Women empowerment is the empowerment of women which helps them to take their own decisions by breaking all personal limitations of the society and family. It is to bring equality in the society for both male and female in all areas. Women empowerment is very necessary to make the bright future of the family, society and country. Women need fresh and more capable environment so that they can take their own right decisions in every area whether for themselves, family, society or country. In order to make the country fully developed country, women empowerment is an essential tool to get the goal of development.
The Department of Women and Child Development in India sees all the issues related to the women and children. The Department came into existence as a separate Ministry with effect from 30th January, 2006, with the aim of “Empowered women living with dignity and contributing as equal partners in development in an environment free from violence and discrimination. And, well nurtured children with full opportunities for growth and development in a safe and protective environment”. Earlier since 1985, it was a Department under the Ministry of Human Resources Development.