1947: Independent India’s First Budget
Finance Minister: R.K. Shanmukham Chetty.
India’s first finance minister Presented: November 26, 1947
The Budget Decision: Well, the decision to present a budget itself, since it covered just 7-1/2 months, from August 15, 1947, to March 31, 1948
1951: The first Budget of the Republic of India
Women empowerment is the empowerment of women which helps them to take their own decisions by breaking all personal limitations of the society and family. It is to bring equality in the society for both male and female in all areas. Women empowerment is very necessary to make the bright future of the family, society and country. Women need fresh and more capable environment so that they can take their own right decisions in every area whether for themselves, family, society or country. In order to make the country fully developed country, women empowerment is an essential tool to get the goal of development.
The Department of Women and Child Development in India sees all the issues related to the women and children. The Department came into existence as a separate Ministry with effect from 30th January, 2006, with the aim of “Empowered women living with dignity and contributing as equal partners in development in an environment free from violence and discrimination. And, well nurtured children with full opportunities for growth and development in a safe and protective environment”. Earlier since 1985, it was a Department under the Ministry of Human Resources Development.
Women Empowerment refers to increasing and improving the social, economic, political and legal strength of the women, to ensure equal-right to women. It helps women to control and benefit from resources, assets, income and their own time, as well as the ability to manage risk and improve their economic status and wellbeing. Many of the barriers to women’s empowerment and equity lie ingrained in cultural norms. Many women feel these pressures, while others have become accustomed to being treated inferior to men. Empowering women to participate fully in economic life across all sectors is essential to build stronger economies, achieve internationally agreed goals for development and sustainability, and improve the quality of life for women, men, families and communities.
Child labour in India is biggest problem in India. The main reason is poverty and lack of social security. Commercialisation of education and lack of good quality of education and facilities in the government school do not able to stop the child labour. This situation has to be evaluated at the current scenario.
As we know that child are the future of the country, but the mud of child labour become very harmful to the child rather it is directly affect the future of the nation. Therefore, Government of India has enacted Right to Education (RTE) and also amended Child Labour (Prohibition and Regulation) Amendment Act, 2016 to keep distance from child labouring as well as facilitate the better and free education, easy admission in schools, listened the children’s health to prohibit the engagement of children in all occupations and of adolescents in hazardous occupations and processes and facilitate the rules and regulation of convention of International Labour Organisation (ILO).
India is being a welfare state, then it is the duty of the state to play a key role in the protection and promotion of the social and economic well-being of its citizens. It is based on the principles of equality of opportunity, equitable distribution of wealth, and public responsibility for those unable to avail themselves of the minimal provisions for a good life. The New Development Schemes (Pradhan Mantri Schemes) which was launched from the past 2014 to till date, as a welfare schemes, including the AMRUT, Apprentice Protsahan Yojana, Atal Pension Yojana among many more.
Before moving on to the discussion on Direct Benefit Transfer (DBT) scheme, firstly we have to understand- ‘what is Subsidy and why it is given?’ Subsidy is a mechanism of welfare state in which government extended its support to the institution, business or individual in the form of a cash payment or a tax reduction. It is generally used as a form of support for particular portions of a nation’s economy which can assist struggling markets by lowering the burdens placed on them, or encourage new developments by providing financial support for the endeavors.
What demonetisation is….
The act of banning a currency of being a legal tender is termed as demonetisation. Whenever a country changes its national currency in order to curb counterfeiting and money-laundering, it issues a notice of demonetisation of its older currency of particular denomination and the particular currency is retired and replaced with the new currency. A recent example of demonetisation is that of 500 and 1000 denomination currency units of India.
Demonetisation of 500 and 1000 denomination currency in India
The rivers of India play a vital role in the sustenance of lives of millions of Indians. They form the major irrigation system. They form the habitat of marine lives.
With the growing population, the demand for water has been increasing exponentially after independence. A river is merely freely running water which can emerge from one state, flows through another state and ends in third state. The uprising of Cauvery river dispute between Karnataka and Tamil Nadu has blown fire to the scenario of inter-state water disputes. Most of these disputes have been resolved on the basis of unbiased allotment by the central government. Whenever required, negotiation through appointment of water disputes tribunals is also resorted.
TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL
May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.
June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).
June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.
September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.
July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.
February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu
September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.
February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.
March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.
March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.
May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.
June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.
June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.
July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.
August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.
September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka