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Neutrinos—The Ghost Particle


A neutrino is a subatomic particle that found its similarities with that of an electron. But unlike electron, it has no electrical charge and negligibly small mass, which can also be considered zero. It is one of the fundamental particles which make up the entire universe.

Neutrinos are the most abundant particles in the universe still they are difficult to detect because they interact with matter in least possible circumstances.

They are almost nothing at all, because they have almost no mass and no electric charge. They are just little wisps of almost nothing because of which they are also referred to as ghost particles.

Cosmic neutrino 

Credit: NASA/CXC/M.Weiss

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Indian Space Research Organization


Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established in August 1969 by two pioneer scientists of India – Vikram Sarabhai and Homi Bhabha with a vision to harness space technology for national development, while pursuing space science research exploration. Headquarter of ISRO is in Antariksh Bhavan, Bangalore. ISRO successfully launched its first satellite Aryabhata in 1975 with the help of space launching vehicle of Soviet Union. However, Rohini was the first Indian satellite which was placed in orbit by Indian launching vehicle, SLV–3 in 1980. Presently the organization is headed by Dr. A S Kiran Kumar.

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FIBRE-OPTICS AND COMMUNICATIONS [Part-II]


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In this article I would like to discuss about classification of optical fibres, some important terms related to them and their demerits.

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