The India’s struggle for freedom against despotic British rule took decisive turns towards a broad-based popular struggle under the M.K Gandhi’s leadership. This was the phase of real awakening against tyranny of minority and full-fledge movement for the getting Poorn Swaraj.
The rise of Indian nationalism can only explained in terms of Indian response to the British Raj through the creation of new institutions, new opportunities, resources, etc. In fact, it would be more correct to say that it was a product of various factors- Indian Renaissance, Offshoot of Modern education, and development of press and right of self-determination by French Revolution. The seed of formal struggle were started with evolution of institution which is discussed below:
The part I of Peasant movement which was an agricultural movement dealt with peasantry under colonialism and early peasant movements. The part II was associated with later peasant movements of 20th century which affected the national freedom struggle to a great extent. The final part III discusses the peasant activity in various provinces.
In the previous article I briefly discussed peasantry under colonialism and some early peasant movements. The part II discusses some of the later peasant movements of 20th century that were deeply influenced by and had a great impact on the national freedom struggle.
Peasant movement is a social movement associated with the agricultural policy. The history of peasant movements can be traced to the economic policies of the Britishers, which have brought about many changes in the Indian agrarian system. The consequences of the British colonial expansion affected the Indian peasantry to a great extent and it rose in revolt from time to time. India is basically an agrarian economy with the bulk of rural population following the occupation of agriculture. Peasants formed the backbone of the civil rebellions, which were often led by zamindars and petty chieftains. In this article I would like to discuss peasantry under colonialism and various peasant movements briefly.
A gharana is a system of social organisation linking musicians or dancers by lineage or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. The word gharana comes from the Urdu/Hindi word ‘ghar’ which means ‘family’ or ‘house’. It typically refers to the place where the musical ideology originated. It also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology and differentiates from one school to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music. Here, we are giving some famous “Gharanas of Classical Music in Hindustani Style ” that will help in the understanding of Indian classical music.
Buddhism provided a fresh momentum to the Indian culture in the intellectual, literary, artistic and architectural field even it has completely vanished from India, its birth place. Like Jainism, Buddhism went a long way in influencing the Indian culture and mind set of the people.
Lord Gautam Buddha gave us four guiding principles. These are: there is suffering in life; the ground of suffering is desire; ending desire implicates ending suffering; and following a controlled and moderate lifestyle will end desire, and consequently end suffering. During the Indian National Movement, the major force of Satyagrahi which was based on Ahimsa—came from Buddhism.