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Mahatma Gandhi- Educational Thoughts and Their Impact of Indian Education System


Mahatma Gandhi was a great leader, a practical philosopher and an educational thinker of great repute. He wanted  to establish a caste-less society free of all exploitation and racial discrimination. He used education as an instrument to achieve this purpose. His philosophy of education was an outcome of long experience of political, social and economic life of the country.

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Struggle of Independence-III Phase (AD 1927-1939)


The India’s struggle for freedom against despotic British rule took decisive turns towards a broad-based popular struggle under the M.K Gandhi’s leadership. This was the phase of real awakening against tyranny of minority and full-fledge movement for the getting Poorn Swaraj.

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Struggle of Independence- II Phase(1919- 1927 AD)


The World War I play important role in mass awakening in India and eroded the Myth of White Man’s prestige. And also Russian Revolution play important role in strengthening of will-power. It took popular and formal struggle after the advent of M.K Gandhi.

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Struggle for Independence – I Phase(1885-1918 AD)


The rise of Indian nationalism can only explained in terms of Indian response to the British Raj through the creation of new institutions, new opportunities, resources, etc. In fact, it would be more correct to say that it was a product of various factors- Indian Renaissance, Offshoot of Modern education, and development of press and right of self-determination by French Revolution. The seed of formal struggle were started with evolution of institution which is discussed below:

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Struggle of Independence-III Phase (AD 1927-1939)


The India’s struggle for freedom against despotic British rule took decisive turns towards a broad-based popular struggle under the M.K Gandhi’s leadership. This was the phase of real awakening against tyranny of minority and full-fledge movement for the getting Poorn Swaraj.

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Struggle of Independence- IV Phase (AD 1940-1947)


The outbreak of World War II and British unilateral declaration that India is party to war, without consultation with Indian leaders in particular and its people in general, made the Congress to demand for the self government or swaraj. And this became the last nail for bargained situation for the British, either to give India’s fate to the India or face regression or boycott.

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Peasant Movements—1857-1947 (III)


The part I of Peasant movement which was an agricultural movement dealt with peasantry under colonialism and early peasant movements. The part II was associated with later peasant movements of 20th century which affected the national freedom struggle to a great extent. The final part III discusses the peasant activity in various provinces.

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Peasant Movements—1857-1947 (II)


In the previous article I briefly discussed peasantry under colonialism and some early peasant movements. The part II discusses some of the later peasant movements of 20th century that were deeply influenced by and had a great impact on the national freedom struggle.

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Peasant Movements [1857-1947] (I)


Peasant movement is a social movement associated with the agricultural policy. The history of peasant movements can be traced to the economic policies of the Britishers, which have brought about many changes in the Indian agrarian system. The consequences of the British colonial expansion affected the Indian peasantry to a great extent and it rose in revolt from time to time. India is basically an agrarian economy with the bulk of rural population following the occupation of agriculture. Peasants formed the backbone of the civil rebellions, which were often led by zamindars and petty chieftains. In this article I would like to discuss peasantry under colonialism and various peasant movements briefly.

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Gharanas of Classical Music in Hindustani Style


A gharana is a system  of social organisation linking musicians or dancers by lineage or apprenticeship, and by adherence to a particular musical style. The word gharana comes from the Urdu/Hindi word ‘ghar’ which means ‘family’ or ‘house’. It typically refers to the  place where the musical ideology originated. It also indicates a comprehensive musicological ideology and differentiates from one school to another. It directly affects the thinking, teaching, performance and appreciation of music. Here, we are giving some famous “Gharanas of Classical Music in Hindustani Style ” that will help in the understanding of Indian classical music.

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