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Concept of Triple Talaq


India is a secular country. According to 2011 census, India accommodates around 14.23% Muslims out of total population making it world’s third largest Muslim population. India which has nowadays emerged as a powerful nation among all and the very first nation successfully launching Mars Orbiter Mission and teaches the lesson of women empowerment to the world still sees the life of Muslim women being ruined mercilessly under the threat of a sudden, oral and out-of-court divorce merely by uttering “talaq” thrice which is popularly known as Triple Talaq.

The Indian constitution protects gender equality, but on issues of marriage, divorce and inheritance, different religious communities are governed by their own so-called personal laws. Whether a person is subject to those laws is usually determined by their religion at birth.

 

Most of the Muslim women are forced to marry before the age of 15 years which is illegitimate as per our constitution but legal as per Muslim law board. Marriage at such a tender age decreases their ability to acquire proper education and become self-dependent financially. According to a survey conducted by Bhartiya Muslim Mahila Andolan revealed the horrific picture that 95% of divorced women does not receive any maintenance from their husbands.

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Timeline of Cauvery Dispute


TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL

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May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.

June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).

June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.

September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.

July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.

February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu

September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.

February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.

March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.

March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.

May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.

June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.

June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.

July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.

August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.

September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka

Role of News Media as Civic Forum


Equality vital, in their civic forum, the free press can strengthen the public sphere, by mediating between citizens and the state, facilitating debate about the major issues of the day, and informing the public about their leaders. If the channels of communication reflect the social and cultural pluralism within each society, in a fair and impartial balance, then multiple interests and voices are heard in public deliberation.  This role is particularly important during election campaigns, as fair access to the  airwaves by opposition parties, candidates and groups is critical  for competitive, free and fair multiparty elections.

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During  campaigns, a free media provides citizens with information to compare and evaluate the retrospective record, prospective policies and leadership characteristics of parties and candidates, providing the essential conditions for informed choice.

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Simon’s concept of decision – making


Herbert A. Simon propounded the bounded rationality model to explain why limits exist to rational decision within decision – making environment. He defined decision – making as “the alternative courses of action”. He states that, decision – making pervades the entire organization that is decisions are made at all level of organizations. Hence, he said an organization as structure of decision – makers. According to him, decision is an all – embracing activity subsuming all the administrative functions described as ‘POCCC’ by Fayol and ‘POSDCORB’ by Gullick.

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Human Attitude: An Introduction


Every individual adheres to different sets of values. These values are manifested in the form of attitude of a person. Attitude consists of the acquired state of mind, consisting of feelings, thoughts and tendency to act towards anything we come across. Based on our mindset, we may attribute a positive or negative character with any particular thing.

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It is not necessary that we carry the same attitude forever. We might react to a thing different in different times. Also an individual can also have multiple attitude for any object. Read More…

Role of Social Institutions in Inculcating Values


Inculcating Values

Men and society has always been concerned about the social milieu in which we live. Thus, men of great intellect and vision have made deep insights into the issues of ethics and morality, in their attempt to explore the appropriate ‘means’ and ‘ends’ of the human life.

Education of an individual has a long-lasting impact. Thus, there is a great emphasis on the nature and scope of education system in reforming and inculcating the human life with ethical principles. There has been a realization of the urgent need to control our materialistic impulses through the development of cognition, belief and emotions. That is why, the theme of value education has become very important in the contemporary society.

In India, the National Policy on Education (1986) reiterated the same need for value education. Read More…

Virtue and Vice: Various Perspectives


Virtue and Vice

Greek Philosophers believed virtue as excellence of any kind. A virtue is a character trait or quality that is valued as good, by the society. Virtues generally further the good of the society and the individual. It is a disposition of the character to act in an appropriate and beneficial way.

Virtues can be seen in the context of values. A value is a core yardstick of measuring the desirability and appropriateness of the things we observe around. Every individual abides by some values that guide his actions and beliefs. Likewise, every society upholds certain values that are valued as important for the establishment of a good life. However, it is not necessary that an individual’s values are in conformity to the social values. Read More…

Problem- Solving [Part-II]


Thinking patterns

Problem solvers should choose appropriate patterns, responding to situations. Hence, the problem-solvers should adhere four universal patterns to make good decision which is discussed below:strategic thinking, emotional thinking, realistic thinking, and empirical thinking.

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  • Strategic thinking: Focus, or bias, is the criterion for strategic thinking. If you judge whether a situation is right or wrong based on whether the situation is focused or not, your judgement is strategic. A strategy is not necessarily strategic. Historically, many strategists such as Confucius in ancient China, Naplon, M. Porter proposed strategic thinking when they develop strategies.
  • Emotional thinking: In organizations, an emotional aspect is essential. Tactical leaders judge whether a situation is right or wrong based on the participant’s emotional commitment. They think that if participants can be positive to a situation, the situation is right.
  • Realistic thinking
  1. Start from what we can do
  2. Fix the essential problem first

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Problem Solving [Part-I]


Problem-solving is cognitive process that comprises of discovering, analysing and solving problems. The ultimate goal of problem-solving is to overcome obstacles and find a solution that best resolves the issue. The unique situation creates the best strategy for solving problems, and also creativity and insight are the best options.

Before moving on to the discussion, firstly know that-“What is Problems?” Problem is a state of difficulty that needs to be resolved. We often see people always get stuck and struggle at a point and this will strategised them to react to resolve the problems. Lasswell stresses: “Knowledge of the decision process implies systematic and empirical studies of how strategies are made and put into effect”. Hence, Problem-solving does more analysis of hypothesis, predictions, Causation, and optimising, there develops a body of potential premises that can be used in deducing conclusions, just as Chemistry was able to deduce the existence of new elements before they were empirically discovered. But all these attributes can only possible to adhere, if a person poses some universal steps that discussed below.

 

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COMMUNALISM IN INDIA


Communalism refers to a politics that seeks to unify one community around a religious identity in hostile opposition to another community. It seeks to define this community identity as fundamental and fixed. It attempts to consolidate this identity and present it as natural – as if people were born into the identity, as if the identities do not evolve through history over time.

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