Archive by Author | Shahid Sarwar

Rohingya Crisis-Internal Issue of Myanmar


Rohingyas are the stateless and  among the most persecuted people in the world. They belongs to Muslim ethnic-minority group who lived as a people in Myanmar for centuries and speak their own language, which isn’t recognised by the state. They have faced repression since the 1970s, but more intensively since 2011, when the government transformed from a military administration to a democratic administration.

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Function and Power of the presiding officer of Lok Sabha


Since the Indian system of government follows the Westminster Model, the parliamentary proceedings of the country are headed by a presiding officer who is called a Speaker. The Lok Sabha or the Lower House of the People in India, which is the highest legislative body in the country, chooses its Speaker who presides over the day-to-day functioning of the House. Thus, the Speaker plays the crucial role of ensuring that the Lok Sabha carries forward its role of legislation peacefully, maintaining harmony in the Houses of Parliament and taking crucial procedural decisions of the House. The Speaker is thus, in every sense, considered the true guardian of the Indian Parliamentary democracy, holding the complete authority of the Lok Sabha.  Article 93 of the Constitution says that the House of the People (Lok Sabha) shall, as soon as may be, choose two members of the House to be respectively Speaker and Deputy Speaker. Speaker has one of the important power is to decide whether a Bill is a Money Bill or not and his decision on this question is final.

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Earth: Our home planet…


Earth is the blue planet of the universe and third planet from the Sun. It is fifth largest planet in the solar system and just slightly larger than nearby Venus, Earth is the biggest of the terrestrial planets.

The name Earth is at least 1,000 years old. All of the planets, except for Earth, were named after Greek and Roman Gods and Goddesses. However, the name Earth is an English or German word, which simply means the Ground.

Formation of the Earth:

When the solar system settled into its current layout about 4.5 billion years ago, Earth formed when gravity pulled swirling gas and dust in to become the third planet from the Sun. Like its fellow terrestrial planets, Earth has a central core, a rocky mantle and a solid crust.

Structure of the Earth:

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Structure of the Earth

Earth is composed of four main layers.  They are:

  • Inner core
  • Outer Core
  • Mantle
  • Crust

The inner core is a solid sphere made of iron and nickel metals about 1,221km in radius. There the temperature is as high as 9,800 degrees Fahrenheit (5,400 degrees Celsius). Surrounding the inner core is the outer core. This layer is about 2,300 km thick, made of iron and nickel fluids.

In between the outer core and crust is the mantle, the thickest layer. This hot, viscous mixture of molten rock is about 2,900 km thick and has the consistency of caramel. The outermost layer of Earth is crust and it is about 30 km deep on average on land.

Note: – At the bottom of the ocean, the crust is thinner and extends about 5km from the sea floor to the top of the mantle.

Atmosphere of the Earth:

The atmosphere of the Earth consists of 78% of Nitrogen, 21% of Oxygen, and 1% of other gases such as Argon, Carbon dioxide and Neon. The atmosphere affects Earth’s long-term climate and short-term local weather that shields us from much of the harmful radiation coming from the Sun. It also protects us from meteoroids, most of which burn up in the atmosphere, seen as meteors in the night sky, before they can strike the surface as meteorites.

Interior feature of the Earth:

Now, we will discuss the interior feature of the Earth. But, we know little directly about the interior of the earth. Therefore, I elaborated the two important concepts to deal with the interior of the Earth below. They are:

  1. Seismic Waves:

The seismic waves, which are vibrations in the body of the earth, provided the information regarding the interior features of the earth. Most of our information about the surface and interior of the Earth has come from the seismic waves.

There are two general categories of seismic waves. They are:

  1. P-Waves: These Waves are longitudinal pressure waves and can propagate in both solids and liquids.
  2. S-Waves: These Waves are transverse waves that can propagate in solids but not in liquids.

Here is an illustration of the difference between P-Waves and S-Waves. These seismic waves, which are generated naturally by earthquakes, by volcanoes, and by impacts, and may be produced artificially by explosions and mechanical devices, tell us about the interior in several general ways. The figure on the right illustrates for a planet with varying interior density and a liquid core.

pand-s-shadow

P and S Waves

First, seismic waves have their direction of motion changed (refracted) by variations in the interior density. Thus, by studying the way such waves propagate in the Earth we can learn something about density variations. Second, the fact that P-Waves propagate in liquids but S-Waves do not allows us to determine if portions of the interior are liquid.

  1. Geological Differentiation:

According to this concept, the Earth, which is seen as its present interior structure is made through the geological process which is called as differentiation. It is illustrated in the following figure.

differentiation

The Process of Geological Differentiation

The process of geological differentiation:

Within about 1 billion years of its formation, the Earth was melted by heat arising from a combination of sources:

  • Gravitational energy left from the formation of the planet
  • Meteor bombardment
  • Decay of radioactive material trapped in the body of the Earth

While the Earth was molten, gravity acted to concentrate more dense material near the center and less dense material nearer the surface. When the Earth solidified again (except for the liquid outer core) it was left with a layered structure with more dense material like iron and nickel near the center and less dense rocks nearer the surface. As the outer layers cooled and solidified, large cracks developed because of thermal stress, leaving the lithosphere broken up into large blocks or plates.

Hydrosphere of the Earth:

The abundance of water on Earth’s surface is a unique feature that distinguishes the Blue Planet from other planets in the Solar System. Earth’s hydrosphere consists chiefly of the oceans, but technically includes all water surfaces in the world, including inland seas, lakes, rivers, and underground waters. About 97.5% of the water is saline and the remaining 2.5% is freshwater. Most fresh water is present as ice in ice caps and glaciers, which are about 68.7%.

Moon:

90462_foto_36364

Moon

The natural satellite of the Earth is referred to Moon, and it is the fifth largest moon in the solar system. It is brightest and largest object in our night sky, the moon makes Earth a more livable planet by moderating our home planet’s wobble on its axis, leading to a relatively stable climate. It also causes tides, creating a rhythm that has guided humans for thousands of years. The moon was likely formed after a Mars-sized body collided with Earth.

The most widely accepted theory of the Moon’s origin is the Giant-Impact Hypothesis. According to the hypothesis, it formed from the collision of a Mars-size proto-planet called Theia with the early Earth. This hypothesis explains the Moon’s relative lack of iron and volatile elements, and the fact that its composition is nearly identical to that of Earth’s crust.

Size and Distance of the Moon:

With a radius of 1,737.5 km, the moon is less than a third the width of Earth. The moon is an average of 384,400 km away from the Earth. The moon is slowly moving away from Earth, getting about an inch farther away each year.

Timeline of Cauvery Dispute


TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL

sc_cauvery_01072013-2

May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.

June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).

June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.

September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.

July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.

February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu

September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.

February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.

March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.

March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.

May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.

June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.

June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.

July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.

August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.

September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka

Crops of India


Cash Crops:

A crop that is grown for sale rather than for personal use is called cash crops. In other word, a cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

Cotton:

  • Cotton is the most important fibre crop of India. It provides the basic raw material (cotton fibre) to cotton textile industry.
  • Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
  • Cotton is the crop of tropical and sub-tropical areas and requires uniformly high temperature varying between 21°C and 30°C.
  • The modest requirement of water can be met by an average annual rainfall of 50- 100 cm. However, it is successfully grown in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
  • Black soils of Deccan and Malwa plateau are fertile soil for cotton.
  • About 80 per cent of the total irrigated area under cotton is in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan. But the main cotton producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

Jute:

  • Next to cotton, jute is the second important fibre crop of India. India is one of the principle producers of jute in the world.
  • It is widely grown in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. Due to best suited soils such as light sandy or clayey loams are found here.
  • The major jute producing states of India are West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya.
  • Jute requires high temperature varying from 24°C to 35°C and heavy rainfall of 120 to 150 cm with 80 to 90 per cent relative humidity.
  • During the period of its growth small amount of pre-monsoon rainfall varying from 25 cm to 55 cm is very useful.

Sugarcane:

  • Sugarcane belongs to bamboo family of plants and is indigenous to South Asia. In India, it is one of the most important Kharif crops.
  • Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or temperate climate, with a minimum of 60 cm of annual moisture. The ideal temperature for the cultivation of sugarcane is 27°C.
  • 100 to 175 cm rainfall is ideal for sugarcane production. In tropical and sub-tropical or regions sugarcane is grown abundantly due to the lengthening of the period of rainy season.
  • Loamy fertile soil mixed with salt and lime is good for sugarcane production.
  • Plain land or gentle slope is ideal for sugarcane cultivation. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane in India, followed by Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Tobacco:

  • Almost all states in India grow tobacco, but the important ones are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh
  • For tobacco 50-100cm annual rainfall and 15-200C temperature during growth period is ideal.
  • After harvesting to dry the leaves it requires bright sunshine & dry weather but not less than containing 8% moisture.
  • Different types of soil are required for tobacco. Bidi tobacco is grown as a rainfed crop mostly in alluvial soils, black clayey or loamy soils. Cigar and cheroot tobaccos are cultivated on grey to red soils varying from light gravelly to sandy loams. The chewing tobacco is grown throughout the country under varying conditions of soils.

Food Crops:

The term food crops refers to the world’s major food supply derived from plants. A crop assumes human intervention through agriculture. In the main, food crops consist of grains, seeds and nuts, vegetables, fruit, and so forth.

Rice:

  • Rice is predominantly a Kharif or crop. It covers one third of total cultivated area of India. It provides food to more than half of the Indian population.
  • The temperature requires for the Rice is 16°C – 27°C and rainfall 100 to 200 cm is ideal for rice growing. But rainfall during harvest times is harmful. Annual coverage temperature around 24°C is ideal.
  • Rice is grown well on the alluvial soil or on the fertile river basins. It is also grown in mixed soil or loamy and clayey soil.
  • Plain lands or gentle slopes are suitable for the production of rice. Therefore, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Assam, Uttar Pradesh are the main rice producing states of India.
  • West Bengal is the largest producer but Punjab is the largest producer of rice per hectare.

Wheat:

  • Wheat is the second most important crop of India after Rice. It’s a Rabi Crop.
  • It is a winter crop and needs low temperature. Ideal temperature for wheat cultivation is between 10-15°C at the time of sowing and 21-26°C at the time of harvesting.
  • Wheat thrives well in the rainfall varies from less 75 to 100 cm.
  • The most suitable soil for cultivation of wheat is well drained fertile loamy soil and clayey soil. Plain areas are most suitable.
  • Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of wheat following by Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Bihar.

Jowar:

  • Among the different kinds of cereal crops in India, Jowar occupies a major prominence. Besides being a staple diet for the poorer section of the society, it is also used for animal feed and industrial raw materials.
  • Basically jowar is a tropical crop. It thrives well at a temperature between 25°C and 32°C but below 16°C is not good for the crop. Jowar crop requires rainfall about 40 cm annually.
  • Jowar is extreme drought tolerant crop and recommended for dry regions. Too much of moist and prolonged dry conditions are not suitable for jowar cultivation.
  • Jowar crop adapts wide range of soils but grows well in sandy loam soils having good drainage. Soil pH range of 6 to 7.5 is ideal for its cultivation and better growth.
  • Major Jowar producing states in India are: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana.

Bajra:

  • It is popularly known as pearl millet. It is grown in the largest number in India. For poor people, this form of millet is supposedly the staple diet.
  • The crop has a wide adaptability as it may grow under different day lengths, temperature and moisture stress. It requires low annual rainfall ranging between 40-50 cm and dry weather.
  • Light soils of low inherent fertility good drainage, mild salinity are best type for this crop.
  • Tamil Nadu is the highest producer of this staple crop and this is followed by Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.

Plantation Crops:

Plantation crops constitute a large group of crops. The major plantation crops include coconut, nut, oil palm, cashew, tea, coffee and rubber.

Tea:

  • India is the largest producer and consumer of black tea in the world. Tea is grown in 16 states in India. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala account for about 95 per cent of total tea production.
  • Temperature varies from 21°C to 29°C is ideal for the production of tea. High temperature is required in summer. The lowest temperature for the growth of tea is 16°C.
  • 150-250 cm of rainfall is required for tea cultivation.
  • Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron. The soil should be rich in humus.

Coffee:

  • Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant.
  • Initially, the coffee plantation was limited to Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, but now it has gradually reached Andhra and Odisha.
  • The ideal temperature is 18 to 280 It is very sensitive to cold and frost.
  • Rainfall must be varied from 125 to 250 cm.
  • Loamy soil with humus content, well drained hill slopes between 450 m to 1800 m altitude are suitable.
  • Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Cardamon Hills, Anamalai Hills are the areas of growing.

Rubber:

  • Basically rubber is an elastic solid material retrieved from latex of many tropical trees. However, “Hevea brasiliensis” is the most commercially cultivated rubber plant
  • The rubber plantation requires heavy and well distributed rainfall of 200 cm to 300 cm having humidity about 75%.
  • The best growing temperatures for rubber plant is from 20°C to 35°C. Freezing temperatures will halt the growth of rubber plants and strong plant is from 20°C to 35°C. Freezing temperatures will halt the growth of rubber plants and strong wind areas are not suitable for rubber farming.
  • This plantation requires at least 5 to 6 hours of sunlight Rubber Plants require highly deep weathered soils which consist of Laterite and lateritic soils. They grow best in well drained porous soils with moderate acidic in nature. However, rubber plant also thrives in red alluvial soils, if there is a good organic matter in the soil.
  • Mainly, it is grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

Toothpaste: A protector of tooth or bringer of harm


The Toothpaste

The development of toothpastes began in China and India during 300-500 BC. Initially, crushed bone, crushed egg and oyster shells were used as abrasives in tooth cleaning. Modern toothpastes were developed in the 1800s. Later, soap and chalk were added to their formulations and after Second World War soap was replaced with various chemical ingredients as abrasives, emulsifying agents, etc. In addition to 20–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, including three main ones: abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. When it comes to toothpaste a lot of international as well as national brands compete in the market.

Brands and their ingredients:

Brands like, Dabur, Colgate, Pepsodent, Close-up, Himalaya, Vicco, etc claims that they are unique to their products. Some of these brands claim to be 100% herbal and others promise to give 99.9% germ check. Majority of the market is shared by Colgate, Dabur, Closeup and Pepsodent.

Ingredients:

Starting with Closeup, Pepsodent, Colgate the following are the ingredients claimed at the back of the carton:

Close-up: Sorbital, hydrated silica, water, SLS, PEG-32, cocamidopropylbetain, flavour, cellulose gum, sodium saccharin, sodium fluoride, Sulphate mica, sodium hydroxide, other CI.

Pepsodent: Water sorbitol, calcium carbonate, hydrated silica, SLS, trisodium phosphate, flavour, PEG-32, cellulose gum, sodium saccharin, benzyl alcohol, sodium mono floride, other CI.

Colgate: Silica, glycerine, sorbitol, SLS, triclosan, titanium phosphate, titanium dioxide coated mica, sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose, FD&C Blue, carrageenan gum, propylene glycol, flavour, etc.

Commonly found ingredients in toothpaste can affect badly to our health. Such ingredients are:

  • Sorbitol
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
  • Saccharin
  • Floride
  • Other abrasives and excipients

Abrasives:

  • Every tooth paste has Abrasives even in most of the ayurvedic tooth pastes (which are discussed here).
  • The 50% of the toothpaste has the mixture of abrasives. It helps to remove plague and calculus through which cavities are minimized.
  • The following are some of the abrasives: aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, various calcium hydrogen phosphates, various silicas and zeolites, and hydroxyapatite
  • Majority of the toothpastes contain powdered white mica, which acts as a mild abrasive, and also adds a cosmetically pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste.

All these Polishing agents not only remove stains from tooth but also do not improve dental health, also cause enamel erosion.

Triclosan:

  • It was used in primarily as preservatives and pesticides, and was regulated by EPA (Environmental Protection Act).
  • Brushing your teeth and washing your mouth using the products with Triclosan can expose you to the harmful effects of Triclosan that include impaired heart and muscle function and hypothyroidism.

The other dangerous ingredient which is being very much cautious in western countries is Fluoride; since people have started being cautious by being aware of the effects of fluoride even well reputed and largely selling companies had also started manufacturing fluoride free tooth paste. In western Countries therefore they got two kind of toothpaste with and without fluoride.

Fluoride:

Boon:

  • Calcium fluoride is the most-common naturally-occurring form of fluoride, and in small amounts it is not toxic
  • FYI: Males over 18 years: 4.0 mg/day, Females over 14 years: 3.0 mg/day
  • Most of the tooth pastes got 1000 ppm (parts per million) mentioned behind the carton like Pepsodent and Colgate, Himalaya

Bane:

  • It is a by-product of the aluminium manufacturing process
  • Until the dental benefits of fluoride were popularized in the mid-20th century their primary uses were in rat poison and insecticides.
  • It is also dangerous air pollutant as well during its manufacturing process
  • Also effects brain also kidney if consumed in large quantities
  • Pepsodent, Colgate total, close-up and even Himalaya which claims as “helping your gums maintain their natural health” contains fluoride.

Apart from the above chemicals, some of the toothpaste’s companies highlight its natural herbal ingredients with its medicinal values. Herbs such as Bishop’s Weed Neem, Barks of Toothache Tree, Pomegranate, Triphala, False Black Pepper, etc. are used by Himalaya.

Whereas, Dabur RED has got rich natural ingredients like piper nigrum (maricha) pippali, shunti, tejovati, lavang, karpoor, pudina satva, gairic powder to exract menthyi acetate, menthine,  methyl cinnamate, and so on to reduce gingivitis, bad breath and keep the teeth strong.

Vicco uses around 20 herbal extracts. On website it claims that “These herbal extracts are chosen for their beneficial effect on the teeth or the gums. Vicco is made from herbs, barks, roots and flowers, not from artificial chemicals. Vicco Toothpaste includes the famous Ayurvedic herb called Vajradanti, which, when translated, means “diamond teeth.” It contains no artificial ingredients, no harsh abrasives, and no fluoride.

But they also use artificial sweeteners and preservatives like all other toothpastes such as sodium saccharin, methyl paraben, sodium benzoatepropyl paraben and excipients-q.s.

So, it is advised on the basis of information given that whenever you go to select your toothpaste, don’t go on the attractive labels, as the health comes first………..

BE SENSIBLE

SOURCE: Wikipedia, India’s top responsibility brands, and others sites

The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948


The Employees’ State Insurance Act, 1948 provide for certain benefits to   employees in case of sickness maternity and “employment injury” and to make provision for certain other matters in relation thereto.

insurance-claim-form

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IMPORTANCE OF FOREST CONSERVATION IN INDIA


Forests are provided us wood and also some home used things. In a straight line it can be said, the forests control floods, drought, soil erosion etc. But the regions under forest are gradually decreasing.

The Forests Conservation should be initiated by everyone, not because of livelihood but for the future. There is great necessity for conserving the forests due to the vast expansion of the Indian population. Environmental scientists also advocated that a mature tree of gives to the environment following valuables things like:

  • Oxygen
  • Checks air pollution
  • Prevents water pollution
  • Control moisture
  • Prevents soil erosion
  • Increases soil fertility

The Government of India initiated some steps to conserve the forests. These are as follows:

  • Celebrating ‘Van Mahotsava’ every year during the rainy season when saplings can be planted.
  • Emphasizing on afforestation and planting trees on waste lands or lands lying idle.
  • Stopping the felling of immature trees.
  • Regular measurement of forests areas to avoid diseases by spraying necessary insecticides and forest fire by clearing dry leaves and branches.
  • For pasturing the cattle and goats, could be uprooted the roots and leaving the soil loose, so prone to soil erosion. Therefore, animal-land ratio should be strictly followed.
  • Most importantly, awareness has to be generated in each person regarding the importance of trees and forest.

Apart from the above efforts, the Government of India has taken some other initiative for forest conservation. In India the fire brigade, etc. copes with such calamity which occurs often in summer in the Chhotanagpur plateau. Recently, satellites have been used to detect and control forest fires.

Often spraying of water, foam etc. from motor vehicles, helicopters, light planes etc. is provided. To promote forest conservation, proper utilization and generation, the Government of India has set up the Central Forest Research Institute at Dehradun, Uttarakhand.

Thus, it is our duties to conserve the forests and save the human beings. The Fundamental Duties of the Constitution advocates to protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers, and wild-life and to have compassion for living creatures.

POWERS OF THE PRESIDENT


The constitutional powers and functions of the President of India may be studied under the following heads:-

  1. Executive Powers
  2. Legislative powers
  3. Financial Powers
  4. Judicial Powers
  5. Diplomatic Powers
  6. Military Powers
  7. Emergency Powers

Executive Powers:

The executive powers and functions of the President are:-

  1. The President is at the head of the Union Executive. Consequently, all executive powers are exercised in his name. The executive power of the Union to be exercised by the President is extended to the matters with respect to which Parliament has power to make laws and to conclude treaty and agreement.
  2. As head of the executive, the President appoints the Governors of States, the Judges of the Supreme Court and the High Courts, the Auditor General of India and many other high officials, such as the members of Finance Commission, Election commission, Union Public commission etc.
  3. The President also appoints the Prime Minister and with his advice the other Ministers of the Union Council of Ministers. But here too, as in all other appointments, the President can seldom use his discretion. He is, ordinarily, duty-bound to summon the leader of the political party which secures an absolute majority in the Lok Sabha to become the Prime Minister and form the Ministry. He does enjoy some discretionary powers in the matter only under exceptional circumstances. When no single political party wins a clear absolute majority and, as a result, no Council of Ministers can be formed without a coalition of parties the President can exercise his discretion judiciously in appointing the Prime Minister. Such situations developed in the past. India has entered into an age of coalition politics. And it may so happen that no single party will be able to secure an absolute majority, and the President may be required to exercise his discretionary power for some time to come, in appointing Prime Minister.
  4. Union Council of Ministers normally remains in office for five years, unless dissolved earlier for any reason. The President must be satisfied that the Council of Ministers enjoys the confidence of the majority of the Lok Sabha. In case of any doubt he can ask the Council of Ministers to prove its majority in the Lok Sabha, as the Prime Ministers Sri H.D. Deve Gowda was asked by the President after the official withdrawal of support by the Congress Party from Ministry. The President can also dissolve the Union Council of Ministers in accordance with Article 75(2) of the constitution, if he finds that the Ministry does not enjoy the support of the majorities in the Lok Sabha.

Legislative Powers:

The president is an integral part of the Parliament of India, and enjoys the following legislative powers:

  1. The Union Legislature or Parliament consists of the President and two Houses of Parliament. He/she shall summon from time to time, either separately or jointly, the Houses of Parliament. The President can prorogue the Houses or either House of Parliament and, if necessary, can dissolve the lower Chamber of Parliament, the Lok Sabha.
  2. The President may address either or both House of Parliament. In such address, at the first session after general election to the Lok Sabha and at beginning of a joint session of Parliament each year, he/she may place the reasons for summoning it. Apart from addressing Parliament, the President may also, in case of necessities, send messages to either House, or to both Houses. Normally, the President does not send such a message, unless however, he/she has a serious disagreement with the Council of Ministers.
  3. The President nominates a number of members in both Houses. He/she nominates 12 members in the Rajya Sabha, and 2 members in Lok Sabha from Anglo-Indian community. The chief purpose of the nomination is to ensure adequate representation in Parliament of all sections of population which many not always be achieved through elections.
  4. The President has certain functions in respect of passing of a Bill. A bill passed by both the Houses of Parliament requires his/her assent in order to become an Act. He/she can:                                                                                                                                                      (a) give his assent to a bill or                                                                                                                                              (b) can withhold assent

   If Parliament passes it again with or without amendment, for the second time and presents it to the President for his/her approval, the President shall not withhold his/her assent there from under Article 111 (in case of Money Bills).

  1. A bill passed by a State Legislature may also be reserved for the consideration of the President by the Governor of that State. The President enjoys this right in relation to a bill passed by a State Legislature only in such cases where those are referred to him by the Government of a State under Article 200.
  2. Except when both Houses of Parliament are in session, the President may promulgate such Ordinances as the circumstances appear to him to require (Article 123). Such an ordinance can have the same force and effect of an Act of Parliament. Such an ordinance shall cease to operate unless passed by both Houses of Parliament within the stipulated period.

THE PRESIDENT OF INDIA


UNION EXECUTIVE

The President, the Vice-President, and the Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister as the head, consist the Union executive.

The President

Article 52 of the Indian Constitution says, there shall be a President of India who would be the Head of the Union Executive. He is the first citizen of India, and act as the symbol of Unity, Integrity and Solidarity of India. Read More…