Archive by Author | Gora

News for February 9, 2016


Important News from The Hindu:

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News for February 7, 2016


Important News from The Hindu:

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News for February 6, 2016


Important News from The Hindu:

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News for January 31, 2016


Important News from The Hindu:

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Management by Objectives (MBO)


Management by Objectives (MBO) is a process of agreeing upon objectives within an organisation so that management and employees agree to the objectives and understand what they are. Management by Objectives (MBO) is a systematic and organised approach that allows management to focus on achievable goals and to attain the best possible results from available resources. It aims to increase organisational performance by aligning goals and subordinate objectives throughout the organisation. Ideally, employees get strong input to identify their objectives, time lines for completion, etc. MBO includes on going tracking and feedback in the process to reach objectives.

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MBO was first outlined by Peter Drucker in 1954 in his book ‘The Practice of Management’. In the 90s, Peter Drucker himself decreased the significance of this organisation management method, when he said: “It’s just another tool. It is not the great cure for management inefficiency … Management By Objectives works if you know the objectives. 90% of the time you don’t.”  According to Drucker, managers should “avoid the activity trap”, getting so involved in their to day activities that they forget their main purpose or objective. Instead of just a few top managers, all managers should: Participate in the strategic planning process, in order to improve the implement ability of the plan, and Implement a range of performance systems, designed to help the organisation stay on the right track.

Managerial Focus

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Environmental Issues


The general meaning of environment is ‘the surroundings about us’. There are three components of environment:

(i) Physical (abiotic) Component-Land, water, air and the related semi-components are included in it.

(ii) Biotic Component-Plants and animals are included in it. Man is an important part of it.

(iii) Energy Component-The sun is the main source of energy on the earth. So, it is also a part of our environment. Besides it, geothermal energy, tidal energy, wind energy etc. are also included in it.

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Man is such a living being who gets affected by the environment as well as affects the environment the most. If we see the historical development order of geography, we find that in the beginning, the geographers had considered the environment stronger than man (Determinism). However, the scientific and technical development made man not only stronger but egoist also. Now he began to feel that Nature is  under his control and he can give a fillip to development in the way he  likes-the limits of development are infinite for man (Possibilism). Keeping  this concept in view, man exploited Nature ruthlessly, the bad results of which began to come out immediately. And then, the geographers  propounded the hypothesis of Neo-Determinism.

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Legislative Proceedings of Indian Parliament


The legislative organ is one of the divisions of government that works in an uninflected function word that serves with the executive and judicial branches. Its main responsibility is the creation of laws and thus during the course of law making, the legislative organ move with the proceedings which is Legislative Proceedings.

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Ordinary Non-Money Bills

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Green Technology


Green Technology refers to a new branch of science that has green purpose. Here, we do not mean the colour but the technology which is environment friendly. This is very important to know why we are moving towards green technology, the answer is our technology is more inclined towards convenience rather than concern for the planets i.e. Earth.

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Again we have another question that why do we need to concern for our planet because the world has a fixed amount of natural resources, some of which are rapidly decreasing. So, if we are to save our planet, we must focus on inventing ways to conserve our natural environment and resources. In other words, we must promote green technology. Read More…