The India’s struggle for freedom against despotic British rule took decisive turns towards a broad-based popular struggle under the M.K Gandhi’s leadership. This was the phase of real awakening against tyranny of minority and full-fledge movement for the getting Poorn Swaraj.
The rise of Indian nationalism can only explained in terms of Indian response to the British Raj through the creation of new institutions, new opportunities, resources, etc. In fact, it would be more correct to say that it was a product of various factors- Indian Renaissance, Offshoot of Modern education, and development of press and right of self-determination by French Revolution. The seed of formal struggle were started with evolution of institution which is discussed below:
What is Public Administration?
Public administration has many definitions, but will put some layman understanding of Public Administration that will give you a more peripheral vision. We will first discuss the ambit of Pub. Adm. i.e Cross-disciplinary- Political Science, Sociology, Business Administration, Psychology, Law, Anthropology, Medicine, Forestry and so on. Read More…
There are two important views regarding to the Nature of Public Administration, that is, Integral and Managerial views.
The integral view: Administration is the sum total of all the activities such as; manual, clerical, managerial, etc., which are undertaken to realise the objectives of the organisation. According to this view, all the acts of officials of the government from the attendant to the secretaries to the government and head of the state constitute Public Administration. Henri Fayol and L.D. White are the supporters of this view.
The managerial view: According to this veiw of administration, the managerial activities of people who are involved in planning, organising, commanding, coordinating and controlling (POCCC- according to H. Fayol) constitute Public Administration.
This view regards administration as getting things done and not doing things. Luther Gullick, Herbert Simon, Smithburg and Thompson are the supporters of this view. The managerial view excludes Public Administration from non-managerial activities such as manual, clerical and technical activities.
Section 377 of the IPC which is commonly referred to as the ‘anti-sodomy law‘ was introduced during the British rule in India (1860), to criminalise homo-sexual activities. It terms voluntary carnal intercourse against the order of nature with man, woman or animal as ‘unnatural offences’ and prescribes punishment with imprisonment for life, or with imprisonment of either description fora term which may extend to ten years, and fine.
1947: Independent India’s First Budget
Finance Minister: R.K. Shanmukham Chetty.
India’s first finance minister Presented: November 26, 1947
The Budget Decision: Well, the decision to present a budget itself, since it covered just 7-1/2 months, from August 15, 1947, to March 31, 1948
1951: The first Budget of the Republic of India
The term “Bitcoin” has been in the news lately; and its value is rising with volatility. Bitcoin is the digital currency that thrills nerds, inspires libertarians and incites the passions of economists who debate the value of money made from nothing but ones and zeros. Devotees watch the fluctuations of bitcoin’s price with a fanaticism typically reserved for college football scores while visionaries gush about the world changing possibilities of money free from government control.
Bitcoin was first mentioned in 2008 in a paper published under the pseudonym “Satoshi Nakamoto “. Bitcoin is a cryptocurrency, so called because it uses public key cryptography to process and verify payments.
India has an unique culture, which has maintained a continuity for thousands of years while adapting itself to ongoing changes at the same time. It is the duty of every Indian to preserve, promote and conserve our cultural heritage and all forms of art and culture.
Art is subjective concept and has no unanimously accepted definition.