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Struggle of Independence- II Phase(1919- 1927 AD)


The World War I play important role in mass awakening in India and eroded the Myth of White Man’s prestige. And also Russian Revolution play important role in strengthening of will-power. It took popular and formal struggle after the advent of M.K Gandhi.

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The Anarchical and Revolutionary Crime Act, 1919

Governor General Chelmsford had appointed a committee under the chairmanship of Justice Sydney Rowlatt in 1917 for retrospections of the nature of revolution and for suggestion which was popularly known as ‘Rowlatt Committee’. In 1918, committee submitted its report with recommendation for punitive as well as preventive measures. This act empowered the government to arrest any person without warrant and can detent for two years without trial.

Anti- Rowlatt Satyagraha

M. K Gandhi started campaign against bill and set up Satyagraha Sabha 24th February  1919 AD at Bombay. During this agitation, M.K Gandhi given famous quote “It is my firm belief that we shall obtain salvation only through suffering and not by reforms dropping on us from the English they use brute, we soul force”. After the incident of Jallianwala Bagh massacre on 13th April, 1919, the anti-rowlatt satyagraha lost momentum.

Khilafat Movement

This was not directly linked to Indian politics but get colour of cementing the Hindu-Muslim unity against British. The Sultan of Turkey, ruler of the people of vast Ottoman Empire, was the caliph of the Islamic world and the Indian Muslim regarded him as their spiritual leader “Khalifa”. In the World War I Turkey (Ally of Germany) was defeated. So, the Congress under M.K Gandhi uses the name Khalifa to unite all Indian in mass struggle against tyranny of British. Hence, Khilafat Committee was formed in 1919 under the leadership of the Ali brothers (Shaukat Ali and Muhammad Ali), Maulana Azad, Ajmal Khan and Hasrat Mohani, to force the British Government to change its attitude towards Turkey. Gandhiji was elected President of the All-India Khilafat Conference which met at Delhi on November 23, 1919. They decided to withdraw all cooperation from the government if their demands were not met.

Non- Cooperation Movement

It was started under the leadership of M.K Gandhi and Indian National Congress from AD 1920 to 1922 against the series of event including Jallianwala Bagh Massacre on the humanity ground. So, Gandhi had decided not to co- operate British in sphere of ruling. It was ratified at Nagpur Congress session and this session is historically important because there were two amendment took place for the constitution- attainment of Self-Government by “Constitutional means’’; Revolutionary changes in organisational set up of congress i.e. formation of working committee of 15 member, formation of All India Congress Committee of 300 members, formation of Congress committee at lower level, opening of Congress membership. It was launched to press three main demands:

  • The Khilafat Issues
  • The Redressal of Punjab incident (Jallianwala Bagh)
  • The attainment of Swaraj

But the movement was withdrawal by M.K Gandhi after the incident of Chauri- Chaura when the Congress volunteers torched the police station with policemen inside who had taken shelter there; those who tried flee were hacked to death and thrown back to fire fired which killed 22 policemen.

Conclusion

This was the phase of Gandhian Era who emerged as game changer with his tool ‘Non-violence’ and ‘the concept of Satyagraha’ pour new colour of Indian movement and define new leadership attributes.

Struggle for Independence Phase 1 (1885-1918)

 Struggle for Independence Phase 3 (1928-1939)

Struggle for Independence Phase 4 (1940-1947)

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