Non-Aligned Movement | Evolution and History
‘The Non-Aligned Movement was formed during the Cold War, largely on the initiative of the then Yugoslavian President Josip Broz Tito. NAM originated as an organisation of the third world countries which did not seek to formally align themselves with either of the two world blocks i.e. the United States or the Soviet Union but wanted to remain independent or neutral. The United States, West European nations and their allies represented the first world countries while the newly formed nations after Second World War were termed as third world countries.
Primary objectives of the non-aligned countries
- To focus on national independence, the sovereignty and territorial integrity of states;
- Opposition to apartheid;
- Non-adherence to multilateral military pacts and the independence of non-aligned countries from great power or block influences and rivalries;
- The struggle against imperialism in all its forms and manifestations;
- The struggle against colonialism, neo-colonialism, racism, foreign occupation and domination;
- Non-interference in the internal affairs of states and peaceful coexistence among all nations;
- Rejection of the use of threat or use of force in international relations;
- The strengthening of the United Nations;
- The democratisation of international relations;
- socio-economic development and the restructuring of the international economic system;
- International cooperation on an equal footing.
NAM proves to be a protective and progressive coverage for the newly independent countries, from the clutches of powerful blocks and solely to the creation of this movement have undergone a sea change. The world cooperation is the new mantra for regional development. Trans Pacific reveals the growth of multipolar world. Decolonialisation has been achieved colonialisation. Moreover end of Cold War, trembling down of many relevance of NAM in 21st century. Countries like India who was founder member of NAM, has readily aligned with USA and signed Civil Nuclear countries where participants are form all the blocks aligned, non-aligned etc. e.g. Malabar US-India Military exercise.
Many experts believe NAM has become defunct because outdated economic trend and lack of economic pragmatism, lack of promotion of real issues like Nuclear Non-Proliferation, child labour, poverty and terrorism. Most the time, NAM objectives are overshadowed by the bilateral issues among its member countries. This erodes the credibility of the movement as an instrument to further the political and economic interest of its members. Many non-aligned countries claimed that all changes that have taken place are result of policy that NAM countries have followed since their inception. NAM has also issued a declaration that worlds is in transition from diminishing confrontation to increasing cooperation, it will emphasise on issues like eradicating poverty, hunger, malnutrition and illiteracy. As one of the founding member of NAM, India was represented by Vice-President Shri M Hamid Ansari. The absence of PM Narendra Modi from such an important forum was criticised by several political scientists, who claimed-‘this will give wrong signals to the world community that India is not serious towards NAM’
Moreover the relevance of NAM becomes significant as neo-colonialism has taken place instead of colonialism. Many African and Asian countries are still victim of neo-colonialism. If the 20th century would be remembered in history as the century is fraught with danger of establishment of neo-colonial rule by same old colonial power like Britain, France and US. The NATO’s unilateral military interventions, gun bout, diplomacy, blackmail and arms twisting policies cannot be stopped unless a powerful movement like NAM stand up to halt it. Ever since its inception, the objective of NAM has been the promotion of peace and complete nuclear disarmament. The movement’s future is dependent on its response to the global challenges. NAM has strongly opined that disarmament is important for the survival of humanity. With its diverse membership, consensus-building is no easy task in the NAM because some members, including India and Pakistan, have been at loggerheads for years.
After prolonged debate and analyses, a report of analysts and policy makers, which come to 2.0. It is an attempt to identify the basic principles that should guide India’s foreign and strategic policy. The views it sets out are rooted in conviction that the success of India’s own internal development will depend decisively on how effectively we manage our global opportunities order to maximise our choices, thereby enlarging our domestic options to the benefit of all Indians. The movement has succeeded to create a strong front on the international level and provided a representation for the third world countries in the international organisations. The NAM has to take stronger resolutions and work more vigorously to achieve its goal. Dr Boutros Ghali has aptly remarked,” With the non-aligned at its heart, the UN can at last serve people of the world as they must be served. Together we can turn 21st century into a time of truly revolutionary change”.
The movement has succeeded to create a strong front on the International level, representing countries of the third world in the International organizations on top of which the United Nations.
Current Challenges facing the NAM include the necessity of protecting the principles of International law, eliminating weapons of mass destruction, combating terrorism, defending human rights, working toward making the United Nations more effective in meeting the needs of all its member states in order to preserve International Peace, Security and Stability, as well as realizing justice in the international economic system.
On the other hand, the long-standing goals of the Movement remain to be realized. Peace, development, economic cooperation and the democratization of international relations, to mention just a few, are old goals of the non-aligned countries.
Hence, we say that the Non-Aligned Movement, faced with the goals yet to be reached and the many new challenges that are arising, is called upon to maintain a prominent and leading role in the current International relations in defence of the interests and priorities of its member states and for achievement of peace and security for mankind.