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Concepts of Environment & Ecology for Fast Track Revision


The Environment is the greatest gift of God to Man. It is derived from the term ‘environ’ which means encircle that comprises of biotic (living things) and abiotic (non-living things).

Definition of Environmental Geography

Environmental geography is the study of characteristic features of various components of the Environment, the interactions between and among the components in a geo-ecosystem in terms of ecosystem of varying spatial and temporal scales.

What is Ecological Efficiency?

Ecological efficiency is the efficiency by which energy is transferred from one trophic level to the next. It is determined by a combination of efficiencies relating to organism resource acquisition and assimilation in an ecosystem. Primary production occurs in autotrophic organisms of an ecosystem.

What do you mean by Ecological Pyramid?

An ecological pyramid is also called as trophic pyramid, energy pyramid, or sometimes food pyramid. It is a graphical representation designed to show the biomass or bio productivity at each trophic level in a given ecosystem. Biomass is the amount of living or organic matter present in an organism.

What do you mean by Ecological Regulation?

Ecosystems are controlled by a multitude of factors, each influencing the other. Almost all living organisms rely on the energy from the sun. When resource availability and predation of biotic and abiotic depend upon each other is called as Ecological Regulation.

What is an Energy Pyramid?

An energy pyramid is a graphical model of energy flow in a community. The different levels represent different groups of organisms that might compose a food chain.

What is called an Algal Bloom?

An algal bloom is a rapid increase or accumulation in the population of algae in freshwater or marine water systems, and is recognized by the discolouration in the water from their pigments. Cyanobacteria were mistaken for algae in the past, so cyanobacterial blooms are sometimes also called algal blooms.

What is meant for Ecological Farming?

Ecological Farming ensures healthy farming and healthy food for today and tomorrow, by protecting soil, water and climate, promotes biodiversity, and does not contaminate the environment with chemical inputs or genetic engineering.

Define the Bio-decomposed pollutants.

The process of bio-degradation can be defined as decomposition or destruction of pollutant molecules by the action of enzymatic machinery of a biological system. There is hardly any complex organic molecule present in the environment or any chemical which man’s ingenuity and synthetic skill may synthesize which cannot be decomposed by this excellent and versatile machinery of enzymatic degradation.

What is Biological Magnification Phenomena?

Biological magnification often refers to the process whereby certain substances such as pesticides or heavy metals move up the food chain, work their way into rivers or lakes, and are eaten by aquatic organisms such as fish, which in turn are eaten by large birds, animals or humans.

Define Bio-Ecology

Bio-Ecology is the branch of biology dealing with the relations and interactions between organisms and their environment, including other organisms. It is parallel word of ecology.

What is meant by Carbon Capture?

It is a process of trapping carbon dioxide at its emission source, and transporting it to a usually underground storage location, and isolating it there.

What is a Carbon Footprint?

The total amount of greenhouse gases produced to directly and indirectly support human activities, usually expressed in equivalent tons of carbon dioxide (CO2) is called as carbon footprint.

What is Carbon Offset?

A carbon offset is a reduction in emissions of carbon dioxide or greenhouse gases made in order to compensate for or to offset an emission made elsewhere. It both helps to combat global climate change as well as caring for local communities. In many instances providing much needed employment, health improvement, biodiversity and broad social benefits to impoverished communities.

What is Carbon Tax?

A carbon tax is a tax levied on the carbon content of fuels. It is a form of carbon pricing. It is noticeable that Finland is the first country that had impose the tax in 1990.

What do you mean by Chemical Oxygen Demand?

Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) is a measure of the capacity of water to consume oxygen during the decomposition of organic matter and the oxidation of inorganic chemicals such as ammonia and nitrite.

What do you understand by Climate adaptation?

Climate adaptation is the principal way to deal with the impacts of a changing climate. It involves taking practical actions to manage risks from climate impacts, protect communities and strengthen the resilience of the economy. In other word, it refers to dealing with the impacts of climate change. Mitigation means dealing with the causes of climate change by reducing emissions.

What is the Pollution Dome?

A mass of polluted air in or above a city or industrial complex which is prevented from rising by the presence of an inversion above it is called as pollution dome. Winds may elongate the dome into a pollution plume.

What is Ecotourism?

Ecotourism is a form of tourism involving visiting fragile, pristine, and relatively undisturbed natural areas, intended as a low-impact and often small scale alternative to standard commercial (mass) tourism. It means responsible travel to natural areas conserving the environment and improving the well being of the local people.

What do you mean by Eco-economics?

Ecological economics/eco-economics refers to both a trans-disciplinary and interdisciplinary field of academic research addressing the interdependence and co-evolution of human economies and natural ecosystems, both inter-temporally and spatially.

Define the Ecological Footprint

The simplest way to define ecological footprint would be to call it the impact of human activities measured in terms of the area of biologically productive land and water required to produce the goods consumed and to assimilate the wastes generated. More simply, it is the amount of the environment necessary to produce the goods and services necessary to support a particular lifestyle.

What is Environmental Impact Assessment?

Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) is an important management tool for ensuring optimal use of natural resources for sustainable development. A beginning in this direction was made in our country with the impact assessment of river valley projects in 1978-79 and the scope has subsequently been enhanced to cover other developmental sectors such as industries, thermal power projects, mining schemes etc.

What do you mean by Euro Standard?

The European emission standards or Euro standards define the emission classes for new automobiles. The emission standards are defined in a series of European Union directives staging the progressive introduction of increasingly stringent standards. The code number in the vehicle registration certificate indicates the emission class for every automobile.

What do you understand by Gene Bank?

Conserving the genetic diversity of our crops, landraces and related wild species is essential to ensure future plant breeders can access this variation, especially in view of increased food demand by a growing world population and climate change is called gene bank.

What is Green Muffler?

Green Muffler is a technique of reducing noise pollution by planting 4-6 rows around the populated areas or noisy places like along roadsides, industrial areas, societies near highways, etc. so that dense trees reduce noise pollution as they filter out the noise and obstruct it reaching the citizens.

What is Urban Heat Island?

An urban heat island (UHI) is an urban area or metropolitan area that is significantly warmer than its surrounding rural areas due to human activities. The temperature difference usually is larger at night than during the day, and is most apparent when winds are weak. UHI is most noticeable during the summer and winter.

What is meant by Ecological Adaptation?

Ecological adaptation is a central component of many speciation-with-gene-flow models. Specifically, divergent natural selection imposed by different habitats or environments can serve as an important “extrinsic” barrier to gene flow to initiate speciation.

What is Behavioural Environment?

The behavioural environment model emphasizes the importance of perception in human geography, the significance of subjective experience, and the potential of man as an active agent in the environment.

What is an Ecosystem?

An ecosystem includes all of the living things (plants, animals and organisms) in a given area, interacting with each other, and also with their non-living environments (weather, earth, sun, soil, climate, and atmosphere).

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