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Archive | September 2016

News for September 30, 2016


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News for September 29, 2016


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Timeline of Cauvery Dispute


TIMELINE OVER CAUVERY WATER DISPUTES TRIBUNAL

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May 1990: Supreme Court directs Centre to constitute Cauvery Water Dispute Tribunal, a demand made by Tamil Nadu since 1970.

June 1990: Centre notifies Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT).

June 1991: The CWDT announced an interim award: Karnataka ordered to release 205 tmcft. In a move to nullify the interim awards, Karnataka government passes an Ordinance. Supreme Court intervenes, strikes down Karnataka’s ordinance and upholds the interim award of the CWDT. Karnataka refuses to oblige.

September 2002: Cauvery River Authority chaired by Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs (0.8 tmcft) of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu. Tamil Nadu unhappy with the order says it will move Supreme Court.

July 2005: Karnataka refuses to implement the distress sharing formula and rules out Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu.

February 2007: After 16 years, Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal holds as valid the two agreements of 1892 and 1924 executed between the governments of Madras and Mysore on the apportionment of water to Tamil Nadu

September 2012: At the seventh meeting of the CRA, Manmohan Singh directs Karnataka to release 9,000 cusecs of Cauvery water to Tamil Nadu at Biligundlu. Both the CMs — Jayalalithaa and Jagadish Shettar — term it “unacceptable”. This is the first CRA meet since the UPA came to power at the Centre in 2004.

February 2013: The Centre notifies the final award of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal (CWDT). The Central government was mandated to constitute the Cauvery Management Board (CMB) simultaneously with the gazette notification of the final award of the Tribunal dated February 19.

March 10, 2013: The Tamil Nadu chief minister says she will work for the formation of the Cauvery Water Board during a felicitation ceremony organised in Thanjavur for her efforts to get the final award notified in the Union gazette.

March 2013: Tamil Nadu moves the Supreme Court to give directions to the water ministry for constitution of the Cauvery Management Board.

May 2013: Tamil Nadu moves Supreme Court, seeking Rs 2,480 crore in damages from Karnataka for not following the orders of the Cauvery Water Disputes Tribunal.

June 2013: The Union water resources secretary chairs the first meeting of the supervisory committee in which Tamil Nadu demanded its share of water for June as stipulated in the award.

June 2013: Karnataka says it cannot release 134 tmcft of water to Tamil Nadu between June and September.

July 2013: Karnataka and Tamil Nadu clash during the third meeting of the Cauvery Supervisory Committee over the latter’s share of the river water. While Tamil Nadu sought 34 tmcft in July and 50 tmcft in August to save the Samba crop, Karnataka says that it had already released 34 tmcft between June and July 13.

August 2016: Tamil Nadu asks the Supreme Court to direct Karnataka to release water to Tamil Nadu after Siddaramiah says there is no water in the reservoirs.

September 2016: SC directs Karnataka to release 15,000 cusecs a day till Sept 15. Protests break out in Karnataka

Crops of India


Cash Crops:

A crop that is grown for sale rather than for personal use is called cash crops. In other word, a cash crop is an agricultural crop which is grown for sale to return a profit.

Cotton:

  • Cotton is the most important fibre crop of India. It provides the basic raw material (cotton fibre) to cotton textile industry.
  • Cotton is a kharif crop which requires 6 to 8 months to mature.
  • Cotton is the crop of tropical and sub-tropical areas and requires uniformly high temperature varying between 21°C and 30°C.
  • The modest requirement of water can be met by an average annual rainfall of 50- 100 cm. However, it is successfully grown in areas of lesser rainfall with the help of irrigation.
  • Black soils of Deccan and Malwa plateau are fertile soil for cotton.
  • About 80 per cent of the total irrigated area under cotton is in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat and Rajasthan. But the main cotton producing states are Gujarat, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh.

Jute:

  • Next to cotton, jute is the second important fibre crop of India. India is one of the principle producers of jute in the world.
  • It is widely grown in the Ganges-Brahmaputra delta. Due to best suited soils such as light sandy or clayey loams are found here.
  • The major jute producing states of India are West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh and Meghalaya.
  • Jute requires high temperature varying from 24°C to 35°C and heavy rainfall of 120 to 150 cm with 80 to 90 per cent relative humidity.
  • During the period of its growth small amount of pre-monsoon rainfall varying from 25 cm to 55 cm is very useful.

Sugarcane:

  • Sugarcane belongs to bamboo family of plants and is indigenous to South Asia. In India, it is one of the most important Kharif crops.
  • Sugarcane cultivation requires a tropical or temperate climate, with a minimum of 60 cm of annual moisture. The ideal temperature for the cultivation of sugarcane is 27°C.
  • 100 to 175 cm rainfall is ideal for sugarcane production. In tropical and sub-tropical or regions sugarcane is grown abundantly due to the lengthening of the period of rainy season.
  • Loamy fertile soil mixed with salt and lime is good for sugarcane production.
  • Plain land or gentle slope is ideal for sugarcane cultivation. Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of sugarcane in India, followed by Punjab, Haryana, Bihar, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu.

Tobacco:

  • Almost all states in India grow tobacco, but the important ones are Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Bihar, West Bengal, and Uttar Pradesh
  • For tobacco 50-100cm annual rainfall and 15-200C temperature during growth period is ideal.
  • After harvesting to dry the leaves it requires bright sunshine & dry weather but not less than containing 8% moisture.
  • Different types of soil are required for tobacco. Bidi tobacco is grown as a rainfed crop mostly in alluvial soils, black clayey or loamy soils. Cigar and cheroot tobaccos are cultivated on grey to red soils varying from light gravelly to sandy loams. The chewing tobacco is grown throughout the country under varying conditions of soils.

Food Crops:

The term food crops refers to the world’s major food supply derived from plants. A crop assumes human intervention through agriculture. In the main, food crops consist of grains, seeds and nuts, vegetables, fruit, and so forth.

Rice:

  • Rice is predominantly a Kharif or crop. It covers one third of total cultivated area of India. It provides food to more than half of the Indian population.
  • The temperature requires for the Rice is 16°C – 27°C and rainfall 100 to 200 cm is ideal for rice growing. But rainfall during harvest times is harmful. Annual coverage temperature around 24°C is ideal.
  • Rice is grown well on the alluvial soil or on the fertile river basins. It is also grown in mixed soil or loamy and clayey soil.
  • Plain lands or gentle slopes are suitable for the production of rice. Therefore, West Bengal, Bihar, Odisha, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Kerala, Assam, Uttar Pradesh are the main rice producing states of India.
  • West Bengal is the largest producer but Punjab is the largest producer of rice per hectare.

Wheat:

  • Wheat is the second most important crop of India after Rice. It’s a Rabi Crop.
  • It is a winter crop and needs low temperature. Ideal temperature for wheat cultivation is between 10-15°C at the time of sowing and 21-26°C at the time of harvesting.
  • Wheat thrives well in the rainfall varies from less 75 to 100 cm.
  • The most suitable soil for cultivation of wheat is well drained fertile loamy soil and clayey soil. Plain areas are most suitable.
  • Uttar Pradesh is the largest producer of wheat following by Punjab, Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Bihar.

Jowar:

  • Among the different kinds of cereal crops in India, Jowar occupies a major prominence. Besides being a staple diet for the poorer section of the society, it is also used for animal feed and industrial raw materials.
  • Basically jowar is a tropical crop. It thrives well at a temperature between 25°C and 32°C but below 16°C is not good for the crop. Jowar crop requires rainfall about 40 cm annually.
  • Jowar is extreme drought tolerant crop and recommended for dry regions. Too much of moist and prolonged dry conditions are not suitable for jowar cultivation.
  • Jowar crop adapts wide range of soils but grows well in sandy loam soils having good drainage. Soil pH range of 6 to 7.5 is ideal for its cultivation and better growth.
  • Major Jowar producing states in India are: Maharashtra, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Telangana, Tamil Nadu, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh, Rajasthan and Haryana.

Bajra:

  • It is popularly known as pearl millet. It is grown in the largest number in India. For poor people, this form of millet is supposedly the staple diet.
  • The crop has a wide adaptability as it may grow under different day lengths, temperature and moisture stress. It requires low annual rainfall ranging between 40-50 cm and dry weather.
  • Light soils of low inherent fertility good drainage, mild salinity are best type for this crop.
  • Tamil Nadu is the highest producer of this staple crop and this is followed by Uttar Pradesh, Haryana, Rajasthan, Maharashtra, and Gujarat.

Plantation Crops:

Plantation crops constitute a large group of crops. The major plantation crops include coconut, nut, oil palm, cashew, tea, coffee and rubber.

Tea:

  • India is the largest producer and consumer of black tea in the world. Tea is grown in 16 states in India. Assam, West Bengal, Tamil Nadu, and Kerala account for about 95 per cent of total tea production.
  • Temperature varies from 21°C to 29°C is ideal for the production of tea. High temperature is required in summer. The lowest temperature for the growth of tea is 16°C.
  • 150-250 cm of rainfall is required for tea cultivation.
  • Tea shrubs require fertile mountain soil mixed with lime and iron. The soil should be rich in humus.

Coffee:

  • Coffee is a brewed beverage prepared from roasted seeds, commonly called coffee beans, of the coffee plant.
  • Initially, the coffee plantation was limited to Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu, but now it has gradually reached Andhra and Odisha.
  • The ideal temperature is 18 to 280 It is very sensitive to cold and frost.
  • Rainfall must be varied from 125 to 250 cm.
  • Loamy soil with humus content, well drained hill slopes between 450 m to 1800 m altitude are suitable.
  • Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Nilgiri Hills, Cardamon Hills, Anamalai Hills are the areas of growing.

Rubber:

  • Basically rubber is an elastic solid material retrieved from latex of many tropical trees. However, “Hevea brasiliensis” is the most commercially cultivated rubber plant
  • The rubber plantation requires heavy and well distributed rainfall of 200 cm to 300 cm having humidity about 75%.
  • The best growing temperatures for rubber plant is from 20°C to 35°C. Freezing temperatures will halt the growth of rubber plants and strong plant is from 20°C to 35°C. Freezing temperatures will halt the growth of rubber plants and strong wind areas are not suitable for rubber farming.
  • This plantation requires at least 5 to 6 hours of sunlight Rubber Plants require highly deep weathered soils which consist of Laterite and lateritic soils. They grow best in well drained porous soils with moderate acidic in nature. However, rubber plant also thrives in red alluvial soils, if there is a good organic matter in the soil.
  • Mainly, it is grown in Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka.

News for September 28, 2016


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News for September 27, 2016


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Toothpaste: A protector of tooth or bringer of harm


The Toothpaste

The development of toothpastes began in China and India during 300-500 BC. Initially, crushed bone, crushed egg and oyster shells were used as abrasives in tooth cleaning. Modern toothpastes were developed in the 1800s. Later, soap and chalk were added to their formulations and after Second World War soap was replaced with various chemical ingredients as abrasives, emulsifying agents, etc. In addition to 20–42% water, toothpastes are derived from a variety of components, including three main ones: abrasives, fluoride, and detergents. When it comes to toothpaste a lot of international as well as national brands compete in the market.

Brands and their ingredients:

Brands like, Dabur, Colgate, Pepsodent, Close-up, Himalaya, Vicco, etc claims that they are unique to their products. Some of these brands claim to be 100% herbal and others promise to give 99.9% germ check. Majority of the market is shared by Colgate, Dabur, Closeup and Pepsodent.

Ingredients:

Starting with Closeup, Pepsodent, Colgate the following are the ingredients claimed at the back of the carton:

Close-up: Sorbital, hydrated silica, water, SLS, PEG-32, cocamidopropylbetain, flavour, cellulose gum, sodium saccharin, sodium fluoride, Sulphate mica, sodium hydroxide, other CI.

Pepsodent: Water sorbitol, calcium carbonate, hydrated silica, SLS, trisodium phosphate, flavour, PEG-32, cellulose gum, sodium saccharin, benzyl alcohol, sodium mono floride, other CI.

Colgate: Silica, glycerine, sorbitol, SLS, triclosan, titanium phosphate, titanium dioxide coated mica, sodium carboxyl methyl cellulose, FD&C Blue, carrageenan gum, propylene glycol, flavour, etc.

Commonly found ingredients in toothpaste can affect badly to our health. Such ingredients are:

  • Sorbitol
  • Sodium Lauryl Sulfate (SLS)
  • Saccharin
  • Floride
  • Other abrasives and excipients

Abrasives:

  • Every tooth paste has Abrasives even in most of the ayurvedic tooth pastes (which are discussed here).
  • The 50% of the toothpaste has the mixture of abrasives. It helps to remove plague and calculus through which cavities are minimized.
  • The following are some of the abrasives: aluminium hydroxide, calcium carbonate, various calcium hydrogen phosphates, various silicas and zeolites, and hydroxyapatite
  • Majority of the toothpastes contain powdered white mica, which acts as a mild abrasive, and also adds a cosmetically pleasing glittery shimmer to the paste.

All these Polishing agents not only remove stains from tooth but also do not improve dental health, also cause enamel erosion.

Triclosan:

  • It was used in primarily as preservatives and pesticides, and was regulated by EPA (Environmental Protection Act).
  • Brushing your teeth and washing your mouth using the products with Triclosan can expose you to the harmful effects of Triclosan that include impaired heart and muscle function and hypothyroidism.

The other dangerous ingredient which is being very much cautious in western countries is Fluoride; since people have started being cautious by being aware of the effects of fluoride even well reputed and largely selling companies had also started manufacturing fluoride free tooth paste. In western Countries therefore they got two kind of toothpaste with and without fluoride.

Fluoride:

Boon:

  • Calcium fluoride is the most-common naturally-occurring form of fluoride, and in small amounts it is not toxic
  • FYI: Males over 18 years: 4.0 mg/day, Females over 14 years: 3.0 mg/day
  • Most of the tooth pastes got 1000 ppm (parts per million) mentioned behind the carton like Pepsodent and Colgate, Himalaya

Bane:

  • It is a by-product of the aluminium manufacturing process
  • Until the dental benefits of fluoride were popularized in the mid-20th century their primary uses were in rat poison and insecticides.
  • It is also dangerous air pollutant as well during its manufacturing process
  • Also effects brain also kidney if consumed in large quantities
  • Pepsodent, Colgate total, close-up and even Himalaya which claims as “helping your gums maintain their natural health” contains fluoride.

Apart from the above chemicals, some of the toothpaste’s companies highlight its natural herbal ingredients with its medicinal values. Herbs such as Bishop’s Weed Neem, Barks of Toothache Tree, Pomegranate, Triphala, False Black Pepper, etc. are used by Himalaya.

Whereas, Dabur RED has got rich natural ingredients like piper nigrum (maricha) pippali, shunti, tejovati, lavang, karpoor, pudina satva, gairic powder to exract menthyi acetate, menthine,  methyl cinnamate, and so on to reduce gingivitis, bad breath and keep the teeth strong.

Vicco uses around 20 herbal extracts. On website it claims that “These herbal extracts are chosen for their beneficial effect on the teeth or the gums. Vicco is made from herbs, barks, roots and flowers, not from artificial chemicals. Vicco Toothpaste includes the famous Ayurvedic herb called Vajradanti, which, when translated, means “diamond teeth.” It contains no artificial ingredients, no harsh abrasives, and no fluoride.

But they also use artificial sweeteners and preservatives like all other toothpastes such as sodium saccharin, methyl paraben, sodium benzoatepropyl paraben and excipients-q.s.

So, it is advised on the basis of information given that whenever you go to select your toothpaste, don’t go on the attractive labels, as the health comes first………..

BE SENSIBLE

SOURCE: Wikipedia, India’s top responsibility brands, and others sites

News for September 26, 2016


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News for September 25, 2016


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