The Indian Constitution is unique in its contents and spirit. Though borrowed from almost every Constitution  of the World, the Constitution of India has several salient features that distinguish it from the Constitutions of other countries. It was adopted by Constituent Assembly in 1949 had 395 articles and 22 parts. Many other articles and three other parts were added to it by subsequent constitutional amendments. As of now Indian constitution contains more than 444 articles in 25 parts.

important articles of constitution of india

Article 1-4: deals with the territory of India, formation of new states, alterations, names of existing states.

  • Name and territory of the union.
  • Admission and Establishment of the new state.
  • Formation of new states and alteration of areas, boundaries, and name of existing states.

Article 5-11: deals with various rights of citizenship.

  • Citizenship at the commencement of the constitution.
  • Rights of citizenship of certain person who have migrated to India from Pakistan.
  • Continuance of rights of citizenship.
  • Parliament to regulate the right of citizenship by law.

Article 12-35: deals with fundamental rights of Indian Citizen Abolition of untouchability and titles.

  • Definition of the state
  • Article 13 Laws inconsistent with or in derogation of the fundamental rights.
  • Right to Equality: Art. 14 to Art. 18
  • Right to Freedom: Art. 19 to art. 22
  • Right against Exploitation: Art.23 & art. 24
  • Right to Freedom of Religion: Art.25 to art. 28
  • Cultural and Educational Rights:Art.29 & art. 30
  • Originally, constitution provided for 7 basic fundamental rights, now there is only six rights, one Right to property U/A 31 was deleted from the list of fundamental rights by 44th amendment act 1978. It made a legal right U/A 300-A in Part XII of the constitution.

Articles 36-51: deals with Directive Principles of State Policy.

  • Article 36- Definition
  • Article 37- Application of DPSP
  • Article 39A- Equal justice and free legal aid
  • Article 40- Organisation of village panchayat
  • Article 41- Right to work , to education, and to public assistance in certain cases
  • Article 43- Living Wages, etc. for Workers.
  • Article 43A- Participation of workers in management of industries.
  • Article 44- Uniform civil code.( applicable in Goa only)
  • Article 45- Provision for free and compulsory education for children.
  • Article 46- Promotion of educational and economic interest of scheduled castes, ST,and OBC.
  • Article 47-Duty of the state to raise the level of nutrition and the standard of living and to improve public heath.
  • Article 48-Organisation of agriculture and animal husbandry.
  • Article 49- Protection of monuments and places and objects of natural importance.
  • Article 50- Separation of judiciary from executive.
  • Article 51- Promotion of international peace and security.

Articles 51A: this part was added by 42nnd Amendment in 1976, which contains the fundamental duties of the citizens.

  • It contains, originally 10 duties, now it contains 11 duties by 86th amendments act 2002.

Articles 52-151: deals with government at the centre level.

  • Article 52- The President of India
  • Article 53- Executive Power of the union.
  • Article 54- Election of President
  • Article 61- Procedure for Impeachment of the President.
  • Article 63- The Vice-president of India.
  • Article 64- The Vice-President to be ex-officio chairman the council of States.
  • Article 66-Election of Vice-president.
  • Article 72-Pardoning powers of President.
  • Article 74- Council of minister to aid and advice President.
  • Article 76- Attorney-General for India.
  • Article 79- Constitution of Parliament
  • Article 80- Composition of Rajya Sabha.
  • Article 81- Composition of Lok Sabha.
  • Article 83- Duration of Houses of Parliament.
  • Article 93- The speakers and Deputy speakers of the house of the people.
  • Article 105- Powers, Privileges,etc of the House of Parliament.
  • Article 109- Special procedure in respects of money bills
  • Article 110- Definition of “Money Bills”.
  • Article 112- Annual Financial Budget.
  • Article 114-Appropriation Bills.
  • Article 123- Powers of the President to promulgate Ordinances during recess of parliament.
  • Article 124- Establishment of Supreme Court.
  • Article 125- Salaries of Judges.
  • Article 126- Appointment of acting Chief justice.
  • Article 127- Appointment of ad-hoc judges.
  • Article 128-Attendance of retired judge at sitting of the Supreme Court.
  • Article 129- Supreme court to be court of Record.
  • Article 130- Seat of the Supreme court.
  • Article 136- Special leaves for appeal to the Supreme Court.
  • Article 137- Review of judgement or orders by the Supreme court.
  • Article 141-Decision of the Supreme Court binding on all the courts.
  • Article 148- Comptroller and Auditor- General of India
  • Article 149- Duties and Powers of CAG.

Articles 152-237: deals with government at the state level.

  • Article 153- Governors of State
  • Article 154- Executive Powers of Governor.
  • Article 161- Pardoning powers of the Governor.
  • Article 165- Advocate-General of the State.
  • Article 213- Power of Governor to promulgate ordinances.
  • Article 214- High Courts for states.
  • Article 215- High Courts to be court of record.
  • Article 226- Power of High Courts to issue certain writs.
  • Article 233- Appointment of District judges.
  • Article 235- Control over Sub-ordinate Courts.

Article 238: deals with states.

Articles 239-241: deals with Union Territories

Articles 242-243: it consists of two parts: (i) added by 73rd amendment in 1992, which contains a new schedule. It contains 29 subjects related to Panchayati Raj, who have been given administrative powers. (ii) Added by 74th amendment in 1992, which contains a new schedule. It contains 18 subjects relate to municipalities, who have been given administrative powers.

  • Article 243A- Gram Sabha
  • Article 243B- Constitution of Panchayats

Articles 244-244A: deals with scheduled and tribal areas.

Articles 245-263: deals with the relationship between union and states.

Articles 264-300A: deals with the distribution of revenue between union and states, appointment of Finance Commission etc.

  • Article 266- Consolidated Fund and Public Accounts Fund
  • Article 267- Contingency Fund of India
  • Article 280- Finance Commission
  • Article 300-A- Right to property.

Article 301-307: deals with the trade, commerce and intercourse within the territory of India.

  • Article 301-Freedom to trade, commerce, and intercourse.
  • Article 302- Power of Parliament to impose restrictions on trade, commerce, and intercourse.

Article 308-323: deals with UPSC and Public Services Commissions.

  • Article 312- All- India-Service.
  • Article 315- Public service commissions for the union and for the states
  • Article 320- Functions of Public Service Commission.

Article 323A, 323B: Added by 42nd Amendment in 1976. Deals with administrative tribunals set up by parliament to hear disputes and complaints regarding Union, states or local Government Employees.

  • Article 323A- Administrative Tribunals

Articles 324-329: deals with election.

  • Article 324-Superintendence, direction and control of Elections to be vested in an Election Commission.
  • Article 325- No person to be ineligible for inclusion in or to claim to be included in a special, electoral roll on grounds of religion, race, caste, or sex.
  • Article 326- Elections to the house of the people and to the legislative assemblies of states to be on the basis of adult suffrage.

Articles 330-342: deals with special provision for SCs and STs and Anglo-Indian Representatives.

  • Article 338- National Commission for the SC, & ST.
  • Article 340- Appointment of a commission to investigate the conditions of backward classes.

Articles 343-351: deals with official language of union and states.

  • Article 343- Official languages of the Union.
  • Article 345- Official languages or languages of a states.
  • Article 348- Languages to be used in the Supreme Court and in the High Courts.
  • Article 351-Directive for development of the Hindi languages.

Article 352-360: deals with emergency provisions, President’s rule.

  • Article 352- Proclamation of emergency ( National Emergency).
  • Article 356- State Emergency (President’s Rule)
  • Article 360- Financial Emergency

Articles 361-367: deals with exemption of criminal proceedings for their official acts of president and governors.

  • Article 361- Protection of President and Governors

Article 368: deals with Amendment of constitution.

  • Article 368- Powers of Parliaments to amend the constitution.

Article 369-392: article 370 deals with special status to J&K.

  • Article 370 – Special provision of J&K.
  • Article 371A –  Special provision with respect to the State of Nagaland
  • Article 371-J: Special Status for Hyderabad-Karnataka region

Article 371A gives special provisions with respect to state of Nagaland.

Articles 393-395: deals with the short title, commencement and repeal of the constitution.


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