Indian Space Research Organization
Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established in August 1969 by two pioneer scientists of India – Vikram Sarabhai and Homi Bhabha with a vision to harness space technology for national development, while pursuing space science research exploration. Headquarter of ISRO is in Antariksh Bhavan, Bangalore. ISRO successfully launched its first satellite Aryabhata in 1975 with the help of space launching vehicle of Soviet Union. However, Rohini was the first Indian satellite which was placed in orbit by Indian launching vehicle, SLV–3 in 1980. Presently the organization is headed by Dr. A S Kiran Kumar.
Following are the mission of ISRO and DoS
1. Design and development of launch vehicles and related technologies for providing access to space.
2. Design and development of satellites and related technologies for earth observation, communication, navigation, meteorology and space science.
3. Indian National Satellite (INSAT) programme for meeting telecommunication, television broadcasting and developmental applications.
4. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) programme for management of natural resources and monitoring of environment using space based imagery.
5. Space based Applications for Societal development and Disaster Management Support.
6. Research and Development in space science and planetary exploration.
Following are the objectives of ISRO and DoS
1. Operational flights of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)
2. Developmental flight of Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV- Mk II)
3. Development of heavy lift Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-Mk III)
4. Development of semi-cryogenic technology for future launch vehicles.
5. Design, Development and Realization of Communication Satellites
6. Design, Development and Realization of Earth Observation Satellites
7. Development of Navigation Satellite Systems
8. Development of Space Science and Planetary Exploration Satellite Systems
9. Earth Observation Applications
10. Space based systems for Societal Applications
11. Advanced Technologies and newer initiatives
12. Training, Capacity building and Education
13. Promotion of Space technology
14. Infrastructure, Facility Development & Mission Operations Support
15. International Cooperation
Launchers of ISRO
Launchers or launching vehicles are used to carry satellites to space and place them in their targeted orbits. A combination of accuracy, efficiency, power and immaculate planning are required in order to achieve high accuracy in placing satellites into their orbits. ISRO constitutes two major operational launchers – GSLV and PSLV.
Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle is mainly used to launch satellites to highly elliptical Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The satellite placed in GTO is further moved to GEO (Geo-synchronous Earth Orbit) which is about 36000 km height with 0o inclination on equatorial plane. The satellites launched by GSLV appear to remain stationary from a particular location on earth due to their geo – synchronous nature. GSLV is being used to launch GSAT range of satellites.
There are two types of GSLV developed by ISRO. First one is GSLV MK – II which has a payload capacity of up to 2500 Kg to the GTO and 5000 Kg to the LEO. The other one is heavy lifter GSLV MK – III. It has a payload capacity of up to 4000 Kg to the GTO and 8000 Kg to the LEO. Recently it has been successfully tested with Crew Module.
Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle has accomplished many historic missions like Chandrayaan – 1, Mars Orbiter Mission, IRNSS and so on. This range of satellites is used to launch satellites into the Sun – synchronous circular polar orbits of 600-900 km height also known as Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It is mainly designed to launch the earth – observation satellites or remote – sensing satellites. The payload capacity of PSLV is up to 1750 kg.
Achieved Targets (2012 – 2015)