Indian Space Research Organization


Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO) was established in August 1969 by two pioneer scientists of India – Vikram Sarabhai and Homi Bhabha with a vision to harness space technology for national development, while pursuing space science research exploration. Headquarter of ISRO is in Antariksh Bhavan, Bangalore. ISRO successfully launched its first satellite Aryabhata in 1975 with the help of space launching vehicle of Soviet Union. However, Rohini was the first Indian satellite which was placed in orbit by Indian launching vehicle, SLV–3 in 1980. Presently the organization is headed by Dr. Kailasavadivoo Sivan.

Mission of ISRO

1. Design and development of launch vehicles and related technologies for providing access to space.

2. Design and development of satellites and related technologies for earth observation, communication, navigation, meteorology and space science.

3. Indian National Satellite (INSAT) programme for meeting telecommunication, television broadcasting and developmental applications.

4. Indian Remote Sensing Satellite (IRS) programme for management of natural resources and monitoring of environment using space based imagery.

5. Space based Applications for Societal development and Disaster Management Support.

6. Research and Development in space science and planetary exploration.

Objectives of ISRO

1. Operational flights of Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle (PSLV)

2. Developmental flight of Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV- Mk II)

3. Development of heavy lift Geo-synchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle (GSLV-Mk III)

4. Development of semi-cryogenic technology for future launch vehicles.

5. Design, Development and Realization of Communication Satellites

6. Design, Development and Realization of Earth Observation Satellites

7. Development of Navigation Satellite Systems

8. Development of Space Science and Planetary Exploration Satellite Systems

9. Earth Observation Applications

10. Space based systems for Societal Applications

11. Advanced Technologies and newer initiatives

12. Training, Capacity building and Education

13. Promotion of Space technology

14. Infrastructure, Facility Development & Mission Operations Support

15. International Cooperation

Launchers of ISRO

Launchers or launching vehicles are used to carry satellites to space and place them in their targeted orbits. A combination of accuracy, efficiency, power and immaculate planning are required in order to achieve high accuracy in placing satellites into their orbits. ISRO constitutes two major operational launchers – GSLV and PSLV.

GSLV

Geosynchronous Satellite Launch Vehicle is mainly used to launch satellites to highly elliptical Geosynchronous Transfer Orbit (GTO). The satellite placed in GTO is further moved to GEO (Geo-synchronous Earth Orbit) which is about 36000 km height with 0o inclination on equatorial plane. The satellites launched by GSLV appear to remain stationary from a particular location on earth due to their geo – synchronous nature. GSLV is being used to launch GSAT range of satellites.

There are two types of GSLV developed by ISRO. First one is GSLV MK – II which has a payload capacity of up to 2500 Kg to the GTO and 5000 Kg to the LEO. The other one is heavy lifter GSLV MK – III. It has a payload capacity of up to 4000 Kg to the GTO and 8000 Kg to the LEO. Recently it has been successfully tested with Crew Module.

PSLV

Polar Satellite Launch Vehicle has accomplished many historic missions like Chandrayaan – 1, Mars Orbiter Mission, IRNSS and so on. This range of satellites is used to launch satellites into the Sun – synchronous circular polar orbits of 600-900 km height also known as Low Earth Orbit (LEO). It is mainly designed to launch the earth – observation satellites or remote – sensing satellites. The payload capacity of PSLV is up to 1750 kg.

Achieved Targets (2015 – 2019)

Year

Name Launcher

Payload

2015 PSLV-C28/DMC-3 Mission PSLV-XL
PSLV-C27/IRNSS-1D IRNSS-1D
PSLV-C30/AstroSat Mission Astrosat
PSLV-C29/TeLEOS-1 Mission PSLV-CA
GSLV-D6 GSLV-MK-II GSAT-6
2016 PSLV-C31/IRNSS-1E PSLV-XL  IRNSS-1E
PSLV-C32/IRNSS-1F IRNSS-1F
PSLV-C33/IRNSS-1G IRNSS-1G
PSLV-C34 / CARTOSAT-2 Series Satellite CARTOSAT-2 Series Satellite
RLV-TD
Scramjet Engine – TD
GSLV-F05 / INSAT-3DR GSLV-MK-II INSAT-3DR
PSLV-C35 / SCATSAT-1 PSLV SCATSAT-1
PSLV-C36 / RESOURCESAT-2A RESOURCESAT-2A
2017  PSLV-C37 / Cartosat -2 Series Satellite
GSLV-F09 / GSAT-9 GSLV GSAT-9
GSLV Mk III-D1/GSAT-19 Mission GSLV-MK-III GSAT-19
PSLV-C38 / Cartosat-2 Series Satellite PSLV-XL Cartosat-2 Series Satellite
PSLV-C39/IRNSS-1H Mission IRNSS-1H
2018 PSLV-C40/Cartosat-2 Series Satellite Mission PSLV-XL Cartosat-2 Series Satellite
GSLV-F08/GSAT-6A Mission GSLV GSAT-6A
PSLV-C41/IRNSS-1I PSLV-XL IRNSS-1I
PSLV-C42 Mission PSLV
GSLV Mk III-D2 / GSAT-29 Mission GSLV-MK-III GSAT-29
PSLV-C43 / HysIS Mission PSLV HysIS
GSLV-F11 / GSAT-7A Mission GSLV GSAT-7A
2019 PSLV-C44 PSLV-DL Microsat-R
PSLV-C45/EMISAT MISSION PSLV EMISAT
PSLV-C46 Mission PSLV-CA RISAT-2B
GSLV-Mk III – M1 / Chandrayaan-2 Mission GSLV-MK-III
PSLV-C47 / Cartosat-3 Mission PSLV-XL

 

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