The Organization is large and sophisticated and its process is more complex. It gets increasingly difficult to coordinate specializations at various policy and operating levels. The PA department performs the vital task of weaving sectional and individual interests and practices in to the matrix of group functioning, that is the organization. Organization had hitherto looked at the Personal department for management of paper work involving hiring and paying people. More recently, organizations consider the human resource better suited for the task. PA plays a significant part in both regulatory and policy planning functions. Though in change, theoretically, of traditional POSDCORB functions, Personnel administration today ventures beyond theoretical postulates. The coverage of HRM has expanded to more enveloping domains in the discipline and profession, throwing open possibilities in the art, science and craft of management theory and practice respectively.

PA administration is therefore understood as the all significant art and science of managing people in an organization. It’s significance lies in the fact that physical and monetary resources cannot and do not sustained increased rates of return on investments, unless complemented and implemented effectively by good human resource practices which reflect in best standards of productivity and service delivery. Increasing research output in behavioural sciences, new trends in managing knowledge workers and advances in training methodology and practices have laid to substantial expansions of scope of personnel administration functions in recent years, besides adding to its understanding as a theoretical area of enquiry.

Historically, the beginning of human resource or personnel administration is traced to Robert Owen and his large spinning mills in Scotland. Charles Babbage and Henry Towde is also associated with it. The latter being more applied and scientific in nature has since then developed along highly specialized lines. It has branched out specifically along the domains of applied psychology and sociology. It has evolved around the concept of welfare state. The theory and practice of personnel management is based primarily in psychology and sociology of human resource. Blunt suggested that in the late 1970’s and even in to the early 80’s , the discipline concern with the human side of the enterprise was largely regarded as covering moribund housekeeping operational activities. Hegg points it out as the contrast between the aspirations of normative model and of the failure to deliver as reflected in the behaviourist model.

All the activities of any enterprise are initiated and determined by the persons who make up that institution. Plants, offices, computers, automated equipment, and all else that a modern form uses are unproductive except for human effort and direction- Rensis Likert.


Every manager makes assumptions and hold convictions about the way people behave in organizations. Sometimes managers personnel concept are demonstrated by the way they behave towards their subordinates in day to day relationships. Even manager who pride themselves on being practical and having their feet on the ground, scoring any theory of management may reveal a philosophy about life and people. The personnel concepts which manager believe in the communicate in action therefore became well known to people in organization.


This concept is also known as Authoritarian type. This authoritarian partner has deep roots in the long and apparently successful experience of such institution as the church and military organizations, in both there have been significant changes in recent years. The line of authority or chain of command traditionally goes directly from the top down through the various layers of the organization, with some delegation of authority but full detailed accountability of the line. These statements establish degrees of authority for management representatives to take action for the organization. They usually also specify how that actions shall be performed. All general directives received from top management are progressively particularized as they flow downward along the chain of command. The assumptions behind this view of administrator have been well expressed by Douglas McGregor renowned theory X. These assumptions were implicit in much of early scientific management movement. The movement advocated controlling work group behaviour by breaking down jobs in to specialized elements , establishing norms of productions , and designing equipment , so that the worker’s pace would be more or less controlled.


These external factors as well as behavioural science research , points in the direction of a personnel concept of administration consistent with management by sharing objectives. In other words traditional strategies of administration need to be changed if they are to match current situation variables. Administrators who perceived these variables as creating needs and opportunities for moving towards the right on the continuum will increase their flexibility in meeting occasional emergency situations with directive methods. When day to day managing is more participative than authoritarian, expressing respect for subordinates and evoking trust, employees accept the occasional necessity for emergency orders from their supervisors. In contrast administrators with a rigid concept centralized authority and controlled restrict themselves to the left and of the scale. This limits their flexibility to respond to the needs of employees for some degree of freedom to use their own discretion and judgment at work in ways that can benefit the organization as a whole.


                                Courtesy: Md Shahid Sarwar


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