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BIHAR SPECIAL: PART-3 (Historical Importance –Cities of Bihar)


2015-02-22

Vaishali

  • Part of Tirhut Divison (Modern)

  • Capital city of Licchavi state. (Considered one of the 1st example of a republic, in the Vajjian confederacy (Vrijji) Maheijanpad. 6th century BCE)

  • Birth place of Mahavir Jain (24th trithankar) born and brought-up in Kundalgrama in Vaishali republic

  • Gautam Buddha preached his last sermon (announced his parinirvana) before his death

  • II Buddhist council was convened here by King Kalasoka

  • Contains one of the best – preserved of the Pillars of Ashoka, topped by a single Asiatic lion.

  • Renowned as the land of Amrapali, the great Indian courtesan, who appears in many folktales, as well as in Buddhist literature.

  • Abhishek Pushkarini, (coronation tank) sacred waters of the anointed the elected representatives of Vaishali.

Buddhist sites in Vaishali

  • Relica stupa
  • Kutangarasala Vihara

           -On it ground Anand stupa can be found

           -With an Ashokan Pillars

  • Coronation tank (Abhishek Pushkarini)
  • World Peace Pagoda ( built by Japanese Nichiren Buddhist sect Nipponzan – Myohoji)

Rajgir (House of the king)/ Royal house

  • Royal Mountain
  • Located in Nalanda district of Bihar.
  • 1st capital of Magadha Kingdom.
  • Well known ‘Atanatiya conference was held at Vulture’s Peak mountain
  • Famous for Hot water springs (i.e. Brahamakund)
  • Vishwa shanty stupa (Peace Pagoda)
  • Rope-way
  • Venu van is an artificial forest (Japanese temple inside)

Gaya

  • A city of ancient historical and mythological significance
  • II largest city of Bihar
  • Situated on the banks of the Phalgu river (Niranjana, as mentioned in Ramayana)
  • Derives its name from the mythological demon Gayasur (Literally means Gaya the demon)

Historical sites (Holy)

  • Mangla Gauri is marked by two round stones that symbolizes the breasts of the mythological sati, wife of lord Shiva.
  • Vishnupad temple is marked by a footprint of lord Shiva incised into a block of basalt.
  • Important pilgrimage place because it was at Brahamayoni hill that Buddha preached the Fire Sermon (Adittapariya sutta)

Patna

  • II largest city of eastern India.
  • Founded in 490 CE by the king of Magadha (i.e. Pataliputra)
  • Capital of Magadh Empire

        –Haryanka

        –Nanda

        –Mauryan

        –Sunga

        –Gupta

        –Pala

  • Derived from Patan, the name of Hindu goddess, Patan Devi
  • Place appears in Chinese travelogue (Fa Hien as Pa-lin fou)
  • City’s various name

      -Pataligrama

      -Pataliputra

      -Kusumpura

      -Kusumdharwaja

      -Pushpapurum

      -Padmavathi

      -Azimabad 

  • Birth place of tenth Sikh Guru (i.e Guru Govind Singh)
  • In 1620, East India Company established a factory in Patna for trading in Calico and silk.

Chhapra

  • Famous for its Bhojpuri heritage
  • Birth place of:

          – Bhikhari Thakur(Shakespeare of Bhojpuri)

          – Rajendra Prasad

          – Chitragupta

          – Mazaharul Haq

Champaran

  • Owes its origin to champa-aranya or champakatanys
  • Champa/ Champaka means- Magnolia / Aranya means- Forest
  • Champaran means- Forest of Magnolia (Champa) Trees.
  • Constituted a part of the ancient kingdom of Videha
  • Personality from Champaran Movement:

     – Mahatama Gandhi was invited by Raj Kumar Shukla.

      – Dr. Rajendra Prasad

      – Acharya Kriplani

      – Mahadeo Desai

      – C.F Andrews

      – H.S Pollock

      – Anurag Narayan Singh

      – Raj Kishore Prasad

      – Ram Nawami Prasad

      – Dharnidhar Prasad

      – Mazaharul Haq

  • Place of 1st Satyagarh Movement (Non- Cooperation Movement)

      – District Magistrate at the time of movement: W.B Heycock

      – Champaran Agrarian Act (Bihar & Orissa Act of 1918)

      -Under chairmanship of Sri Frank Shy

              -M.K Gandhi was also one of its members.

Muzaffarpur

  • “Land of Leechi” was created in 1875 by splitting up the earlier district of Tirhut.
  • Named after Muzaffar Khan, an Amil(Revenue Officer) under British rule.
  • Site of the famous bomb case of 1908.
  • Young Indian Revolutionary (Bengal), Khudi Ram Bose was hang for throwing bomb at the carriage of Pringle Kennedy, who was mistaken for Kingsford, the district judge of Muzaffarpur.
  • Famous for:

– Exporting lychee

– Textile Mills(Famous Marwari Community ‘Sutta Patti’)

Notable Personality

  • Maghfoor Ahmed Ajazi(Political Activist)
  • Janki Ballabh Shastri (Hindi Poet, Writer& Critics)
  • Chandeshwar Prasad Narayan Singh(1st Ambassador to Nepal)
  • Devaki Nandan Katri (Writer of Chandrakanta)
  • Jubba Sahni
  • Aishwarya Nigam
  • J.B Kriplani (Prof. L.S College & Freedom fighter)
  • Has one of the oldest university of Bihar (i.e. B.R Ambedkar Bihar University)

Sitamarhi

  • District was carved out of Muzaffarpur district on 11th December, 1972.
  • Birth place of Sita, wife of lord Rama(Mythological).
  • A rock-cut sanctuary of the Mauryan period also exists here.

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