Peace Treaty with Other Nations and Evaluation of Treaty of Versailles
Evaluating the Treaty of Versailles
The treaty was unjust as the Germans were never consulted. The treaty was imposed, against the threat of resumption of war, in case of non-conformity. Therefore, it was criticized all across the world. To some extent, it also became a cause of the Second World War.
Due to the nature of the treaty, it could not be passed in the US Senate, leading to the ouster of USA from the League of Nations as well.
Treaty of Versailles was a result of several compromises. None of the parties were satisfied with the results. Italy remained dissatisfied and frustrated with the treaty, as the territories, promised to Italy under the secret negotiations, were not given to Italy. German colonies in far East Asia, instead of being restored, were handed over to Japan as mandates. That is why, China refused to sign the Treaty as well.
The humiliation, due to the treaty, provoked the Germans to seek revenge. Thus, Democracy failed miserably in Germany. The Treaty, and the ideals of the Paris Conference, were destroyed in the next 20 years.
The League of Nations also proved as a failure. It failed to bring disarmament. It could never become a universal association of independent nations. Next, the amount of Reparation was grossly inappropriate and unrealistic. As a result, reparation were almost dead by 1932.
However, Lipson has given the justification for the treaty on certain grounds: First, that Allies had already made it clear that Germany had to pay for the civilian losses. Thus, there was no cheating with the nature of the reparations demanded. Secondly, Wilson’s principles were too idealistic, and to some extent self-contradictory, and could not be implemented. Thirdly, the new boundaries, that were created, were the nearest approximation ever achieved to ethnic boundaries. Finally, it was argued that if Germany would have won the war, she would have imposed a more harsher treaty. However, all these justifications are not very convincing.
Peace Treaties with Other Defeated Powers
Treaty of St. Germaine
It was concluded with Austria in September 1919. It also included the covenant of the League of Nations. The Treaty provided for reparation by Austria. But, it was dropped due to a severe famine in Austria. The Austria-Hungary Empire was separated. Ban was imposed on the unification of Austria and Germany. Austrian army was also restricted to only 30000 troops.
Treaty of Neville
It was concluded with Bulgaria in November 1919. It transferred the port of Macedonia to the newly created Yugoslavia. Heavy reparation was deemed, and army was restricted.
Treaty of Trianon
It was concluded with Hungary in June 1920. Large territory was ceded, and heavy reparation was imposed. Navy was abolished and army reduced to 35000 troops.
Treaty of Sevres
It was imposed on Turkey in August 1920. It separated Egypt, Sudan, Tripoli, Morocco, Syria, Mesopotamia, Palestine and some other regions. It imposed heavy reparation, and reduced the army and navy considerably. However, internal political situation of Turkey led to abrogation of the treaty with mutual consent, and signing of a new and better treaty, called Treaty of Lausanne in July 1923.
There was a revolution in Turkey, and overthrow of the monarchy, and set up of Republic, under Mustafa Kamal Pasha.
Team Aspirant Forum