Throughout Indian history, events and developments in Central Asia had a deep and abiding impact on India. As we have seen, during the 10th and the 12th centuries, led to a new Turkish incursion into India, this time in shape of Zahiruddin Muhammad Babur.
Conflicting trends of liberalism and catholicity on the one hand and rigid exclusiveness and
conservatism, on the other, were noticeable both within the Hindu religion and Islam during the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries. Nanak, whose teachings led to the establishment of the Sikh religion, had many similarities with the nirguna saints in opposing the caste system, and was a part of the liberal, syncretic tradition.
Islam and India
The struggle between the trends of liberalism and catholicity and rigid exclusiveness and
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