SOME BASIC CONCEPTS IN GEOGRAPHY
Approaches in Geography
Geography may be studied by way of several interrelated approaches, i.e., systematically, regionally, descriptively, and analytically.
The Systematic approach organizes geographical knowledge into individual categories that are studied on a worldwide basis;
The Regional approach integrates the results of the systematic method and studies the interrelationships of the different categories while focusing on a particular area of the earth;
The Descriptive approach depicts where geographical features and populations are located;
The Analytical approach seeks to find out why those features are located where they are.
Some Basic Terms
An island is any piece of sub-continental land that is surrounded by water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atolls can be called islets, skerries, cays or keys. An island in a river or a lake island may be called an eyot or ait, or a holm. A grouping of geographically or geologically related islands is called an archipelago, e.g. the Philippines.
NOTE-Group of island is called ARCHIPELAGO.INDONESIA is the largest Archipelago in the world.
A body of land surrounded by water on three sides is called a peninsula. The word comes from the Latin paene insula,meaning “almost an island .The world’s largest peninsula is Arabia, covering about 1 million square miles (2.6 million square kilometers). It is bounded on the west by the Red Sea, on the south by the Gulf of Aden and the Arabian Sea, and on the east by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman.”
A strait is a naturally formed, narrow, typically navigable waterway that connects two larger bodies of water. It most commonly refers to a channel of water that lies between two land masses, but it may also refer to a navigable channel through a body of water that is otherwise not navigable, for example because it is too shallow, or because it contains an un-navigable reef or archipelago.
Isthmus, narrow strip of land connecting two large land areas otherwise separated by the sea. Unquestionably the two most famous are the Isthmus of Panama, connecting North and South America, and the Isthmus of Suez, connecting Africa and Asia.
A gulf is a portion of the ocean that penetrates land. Gulfs vary greatly in size, shape, and depth. They are generally larger and more deeply indented than bays. Like bays, they often make excellent harbors. Many important trading centers are located on gulfs.
NOTE-creek<Gulf<Bay<Bight(all are same in nature but differ in size)
A cape is a high point of land that extends into a river, lake, or ocean. Some capes, such as the Cape of Good Hope in South Africa, are parts of large landmasses. Others, such as Cape Hatteras in the U.S. state of North Carolina, are parts of islands.Peninsulas are similar to capes. Most geographers consider capes to be smaller than peninsulas. Capes are narrow features that jut into a body of water. Peninsulas can be large, and many are barely connected to the mainland at all.
Topography is a field of geoscience and planetary science comprising the study of surface shape and features of the Earth and other observable astronomical objects including planets, moons, and asteroids. It is also the description of such surface shapes and features (especially their depiction in maps).
In geography, “relief” refers to the highest and lowest elevation points in an area. Mountains and ridges are typically the highest elevation points, while valleys and other low-lying areas are the lowest.
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