Archive | October 20, 2014


Fred Riggs


Fred W. Riggs’ article “Agraria and Industria: Toward a Typology of Comparative Administration,” published in 1955, won him wide acclaim among scholars. Since the publications of The Ecology of Public Administration (1961) and Administration in Developing Countries (1964), Riggs’ position and reputation in the field of comparative public administration has been peerless. T. Parsons once said that “sociologists all critique Max Weber, but no one can do social research independently and scientifically without referring to Weber’s theories.” In the same manner, those who study comparative public administration will criticize Fred W. Riggs’ “fused-prismatic-diffracted model,” but in conducting research, no one is free of Riggs’ influence.

The limits of Riggs’ theory can be summarized along the following lines. First, one school of thought that supports the “fused-prismatic-diffracted model” believes that this model can replace empirical studies in general. In other words, empirical studies are regarded as having little to no value. The primary reason for this stems from the perspective that empirical studies are time-consuming and expensive. As Milne astutely points out, however, it is dangerous for novice scholars to rely entirely upon model theories. Shortcomings arise when scholars erroneously believe that once one is familiar with one model of administrative theory, one can draw broad conclusions about the administrative features of all regions without conducting empirical research. Read More…

Beginning with Geography for GS

welcome to geography

Relevance of the Subject

Current trend and pattern of CIVIL SERVICES EXAMINATION makes the subject of geography very important. If we analyze the syllabus ,we can easily find out that geography covers a large part of it. In the prelims, very conceptual questions have been asked on various topics likes phenomena of precipitation, monsoon, pressure, temperature, earthquakes, tsunami etc. To answer these questions, one should have crystal clear understanding of these topics. In main examination, the geography syllabus in GS-I is divided in to three parts: Silent features of world’s physical geography; Distribution of key natural resources across the world, and; Important geographical phenomena.

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