Archive | September 2014

Current Events Chronology: Polity Compilation Jan-July 2014


Dear friends,

The importance of current affairs has increased in the recent years. As a result, we spend a lot of time reading and researching the newpapers and magazines. We have compiled important news and current events for the months of January to mid-July, to help the fellow aspirants prepare for the exams.

This is the polity section of the news and events for the months of January to mid-July. We will update and cover the coming months soon.

Hope it will be helpful for the fellow aspirants in their jouney to the UPSC.

Thank you for your support and appreaciation.

All the material related to the current events have been placed, in a revised form in a chronological order. This will help you know about the events in a systematic order.

Here is a sample of events that the file would cover: Read More…

[Part 1] French Revolution: The French Society


France was a strong and powerful state in the 18th century. She had seized vast territories in North America, islands in the West Indies. However, despite its outward strength, the French monarchy was facing a crisis which was to lead to its destruction.

French Society

The political and social system of France before the French Revolution was known as the ‘Ancient Regime’ or the ‘Old Regime‘. French society was divided into Estates, or classes. All rights and status flowed from the social institutions, which were divided into three orders. There was no national citizenship. Read More…

Industry Vs. Agriculture: Prime Moving Force Debate


Soon after the independence, the Indian government selected industry to be the prime moving force of the Indian development. However, there was a great debate over this choice, as agriculture was thought to be more suitable for the role of the prime moving force in India.

The selection of industry as the prime moving force was also questioned as:

  1. There was almost an absence of infrastructure sector, like- power, transport, and communication, in India;

  2. There was also a negligible presence of infrastructure industries, like Iron & Steel, Cement, Coal, Crude Oil, Oil Refinery and Electricity;

  3. Lack of investible capital;

  4. Absence of required technology to support industrialization. There was also no R&D in India;

  5. Lack of skilled manpower;

  6. absence of entrepreneurship among the Indian masses;

  7. Absence of the market for the industrial goods.

Read More…

Reforming the University Education System in India


The Supreme Court ordered the University Grants Commission (UGC) to review the 44 deemed universities. This has created a troublesome situation for the students enrolled under such institutions.

In June 2009, The Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) had empowered the UGC to review the maintenance of standards in these institutions. The UGC appointed different committees consisting of vice-chancellors, senior professors and nominees from various statutory bodies. These committees visited and scrutinised various deemed universities and submitted a report on each university to the UGC. The reports were accepted and sent for the follow-up actions. The MHRD has indirect approval of all proceedings, as the MHRD Secretary is represented in the UGC.

The Flawed reports: The Tandon Committee

Read More…

[Part 2] The American Revolution: Course of Events


No Taxation Without Representation

The leaders of the Massachusetts colony called together representatives from other colonies to consider their common problems. In this Massachusetts Assembly, they agreed and declared that English Parliament had no right to levy taxes on them. ‘No Taxation Without Representation’ became their slogan. They threatened to stop the imports of British goods. This led English to repeal the Stamp Act, but the English Parliament still insisted that it had the right to levy taxes. The Parliament, then, imposed a tax on consumer goods coming into the colonies, such as paper, glass, tea and paint. In protest, the colonists cut down the English imports by one-half. The English, thus, withdrew the plan, leaving only the tax on tea to assert their right to levy taxes.

Boston Tea Party

Read More…

[Part 2] Exploring the Meanings of Values


Vision and Values

A Vision is important for an organization, as it provides a conceptual framework for understanding organizational purpose. Vision expresses the guiding philosophy of an organization, while underlining its core values and principles. It might not be enforceable legally, but it does enjoy a moral appeal. Vision expresses the goal, to attain which, the organization comes into existence. Thus, a vision entails the foundational values of an organization. It also provides the legitimizing principle of the organization.

Through it, the people, who are the consumers of the services provided by the organization, become aware of what to expect, and the standards of excellence which the organization adheres to. A vision finds its significance in the wake of turbulent forces in the environment. It helps the organization to justify its existence, in the wake of protest. Read More…

Agenda for Nuclear Diplomacy


It has been years that India has been trying to resolve the issues in the way of Indian Nuclear interests. India signed the IAEA Additional Protocol on March 15, 2009. It was one of the several steps of the implementation of the 2008 India-US Civil Nuclear Cooperation Agreement. Though the Additional Protocol has designed for the Nuclear power states, India successfully moulded it to suit her interest. However, the protocol remained pending for ratification, due to other urgent matters. The protocol was finally announced ratified by the new Indian PM Narendra Modi on June 22, 2014.

History of Additional Protocol

The genesis of the Additional Protocol lies in the period of end of cold war, when the possibility of a nuclear exchange between the two superpowers diminished. Read More…

[Part 1] Human Values


Values are the principles and fundamental convictions which act as broad guidelines to human behaviour; and the standards through which any human action is judged. Values are an indispensable part of the human society, as anything that we see and find around us, is viewed with reference to some value principle. Throughout our life, we learn from our experiences. Our behaviour change according to the situation. Thus, throughout our life we keep adjusting and adapting to different values.

In this sense, values give meaning to human life, while guiding our behaviour. Our actions are moulded by our decisions, which are guided by our attitude and beliefs. Since values play a formative role in building our beliefs and attitude, they play a central role in guiding our actions and responses. Read More…

India’s Interest in South China Sea


South China Sea is one of the most important seas of the world- geopolitically, economically and strategically. Thus, it attracts a considerable attention of the nations of the South and South-East Asia. However, the recent conflicts have made it an arena of escalating contention.

India has vital stakes in the area, as around 55% of India’s trade in the Asia-Pacific passes through this region. Thus, India has been voicing for the freedom of navigation in the South China Sea, and for peaceful resolution of territorial disputes between China other nations of the region.

Strategic Importance

South China Sea is an important link between the Pacific and Indian Ocean. Read More…

American Revolution


During 17th to 19th century, there arose movements in different parts of Europe to overthrow the existing political systems. The first successful revolution which overthrew the autocratic monarchy took place in England in the 17th century. Simultaneously, there was also the rise and growth of national consciousness and movements to unite the different territories inhabited by the people of a nation if they were divided into different states, and to overthrow foreign imperial rule if the territories of a nation were part of a larger empire ruled by an alien emperor.

American Colonies

Colonization of America was made possible by the voyages and discoveries of the early explorers from Europe. In the 16th century, European countries began to colonize America. The geographical discovery of Americas led to the destruction of the civilizations of the Incas and the Aztecs. During the 16th century, the work of Colonization in America was left almost entirely to Spain. Their programme to colonize was concentrated into South America. As the Spanish empire grew, explorers forced the native population into slavery and to convert them to Christianity. Soon, other European nations started the colonization of North America. Read More…